Anthocleista is a genus of tree- and shrub-like tropical plants in the gentian family , tribe Potalieae , subtribe Potaliinae. There are about 50 species in the genus, native mainly to tropical Africa , including Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands. Anthocleista was once placed in the family Loganiaceae , but more recent molecular, morphological, and phytochemical evidence has placed the group well within the Gentianaceae. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiplasmodial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Anthocleista vogelii at different doses in albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei NK Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each.
Five groups B 1 —B 3 , D, and G were infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei parasitized red blood cells. Groups D, H, and G served as the controls. Group H was not infected and was not treated. It served as the normal control. The extracts exhibited significant dose-dependent chemosuppression of P. The extract exhibited average chemosuppressive effects of Phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, and steroid.
It showed that the stem bark of A. Malaria, an infectious disease associated with fever, anaemia, and other pathologies, is caused by species of Plasmodium. This genus infects mammals, birds, and lizards and is transmitted by the bite of female mosquitoes Anopheles species in mammals or Culex species in birds and lizards in which part of the life cycle is spent.
Worldwide, clinical cases of malaria were observed in about million people annually resulting in at least 1. There were approximately 3. This averages one person dying of malaria every 30 seconds. Despite efforts to reduce transmission and increase treatment, there has been little change in areas at risk of this disease [ 4 ]. Precise statistics are unknown about increasing prevalence of malaria because many cases occur in rural areas where people do not have access to hospitals or the means to afford health care; hence, majority of cases are undocumented [ 5 ].
In Nigeria, the burden of malaria is well documented and has been shown to be a big contributor to the economic burden of disease in communities where it is endemic and is responsible for annual economic loss of billion Naira [ 6 , 7 ]. The disease is particularly virulent among pregnant women and children under 5 years of age due to their low levels of immunity [ 1 ]. The trend is rapidly increasing due to the current malaria resistance to first line antimalarial drugs [ 10 ].
The efficacy of these conventional drugs against malaria parasite has been reported with variable successes [ 13 , 14 ]. The toxic effects of these chemicals on humans [ 15 , 16 ], the development of resistance to it by target parasites [ 17 ], and the high cost of drugs [ 18 ] have paved way for herbal remedies as reasonable alternative.
Numerous plants indigenous to Nigeria have been found with amazing antimalarial properties. It is therefore highly essential that indigenous plants used by the local people to treat malaria be scientifically investigated to prove their ethnotherapeutic use. Many species of the genus Anthocleista are used in the treatment of malaria in South-South Nigeria. The stem bark decoctions are used traditionally in the treatment of malaria [ 19 ], as an antihelminthic especially for roundworms [ 20 ], as antidiarrhoea [ 21 ], and for treatment of epilepsy [ 22 ].
The present study seeks to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Anthocleista vogelii at different dose levels in albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei. The stem bark of A. The plants were properly identified using appropriate identification keys.
Fresh stem bark of A. The dried stem bark was ground into powder in a mortar with pestle before being pulverized into powder form using an electric blender.
Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic stem bark extract of A. The phytochemical analysis examined the presence of the following chemical parameters in the plant extracts: tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, and alkaloids. About 0. The change in coloration determined the presence or absence of a particular parameter investigated. The median lethal dose LD 50 of the stem bark extract of A. The mice were subjected to 24 hours fasting with only water before administration of extracts.
The mice were then observed for toxicity and fatalities within 72 hours. The committee granted outright approval for this study as the objectives were very crucial to the tropical African continent.
The mice were housed in standard cages in the laboratory and stabilized for 7 days during which they were fed with standard livestock feed Vital Feed Growers obtained from Brand Cereals and Oil Mills Limited, Bukuru, Jos, Nigeria, and clean drinking water. The study was conducted in the animal house and in the Department of Biochemistry, University of Uyo, Uyo. The mice were handled in accordance with the guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals by [ 27 ].
The mice parasitized with Plasmodium berghei berghei Nk 65 were sacrificed after six days, having been observed to have shown clinical symptoms of malaria recording a parasitaemia of The mice were anaesthetized in a glass jar containing cotton wool soaked in chloroform. Blood was collected from the sacrificed mice by cardiac puncture using sterile syringes and needles. The parasitized erythrocyte in volume of 0. Three control groups were used. Group G was infected with the parasite but was not treated with any extract.
Group H was neither infected with the parasite nor treated with the extract. The extract was administered for 6 days and, on the first day after administration, the mice were sacrificed, and blood was collected from each mouse in all the groups by cardiac puncture using sterile syringes and needles. Fresh blood from the sacrificed mice was used to make thin and thick blood films for parasite count and determination of parasitaemia.
Six days after inoculation of parasite,blood was collected from the tail of each mouse in the various groups before administration of extracts. This was used to make thin and thick blood smears to determine the baseline parasitaemia. Percentage of parasitaemia was determined by counting the number of parasitized erythrocytes out of erythrocytes in random fields of the microscope. The percentage average chemosuppression AS was determined using the method of [ 29 ].
It was calculated by subtracting the average percentage parasitaemia in the test group APT from average percentage parasitaemia in control Group G infected untreated group APC.
The value obtained was expressed as a percentage of the average percentage parasitaemia in the control Group G:. All tests were performed at statistical significance of using SPSS version Results of the preliminary phytochemical test carried out on the ethanolic stem bark extract of A.
The acute toxicity study of A. The LD 50 of A. Studies of the antiplasmodial effect of A. The choice of these plants was based on previous reports of their antiplasmodial property [ 30 , 31 ]. Again, the remarkable activity of quinine and other related drugs and the success of artemisinin stimulated the search for new plant derived antimalarial drugs [ 19 ]. However, reported cases of drug resistance to these drugs made the search and development of alternative antimalarial drugs inevitable [ 32 ].
Phytochemical analysis of the stem bark extract of A. These phytochemicals were previously reported by [ 19 , 33 , 34 ]. These phytochemical compounds were also reported in another species, A. The presence of similar phytochemicals was recorded in A.
These constituents have been found in other natural products which exhibited antimalarial activity [ 36 ]. Plants that contain many phytochemicals with biological activities including alkaloids and flavonoids could serve as sources of antimalarial drugs [ 37 ].
Therefore, the antiplasmodial activity of A. The ethanolic stem bark extract of A. The LD 50 of ethanolic stem bark of A. This indicated that the mice were safe with the different doses of the ethanolic stem extracts administered to them. Similar result was recorded using the methanolic stem bark extract of another species of the plant, A.
Similar result was reported within 30 minutes to 1 hour after administration of the ethanolic leaf extract of another species of the plant, A. The results implied that the ethanolic stem bark of A. Parasitaemia in the infected mice was monitored in all the groups using thick and thin blood films made from the tail vein of the mice.
The percentage average parasitaemia showed high level of infection in all the groups after five days of inoculation of P. This result is consistent with previous reports of high percentage parasitaemia in P. The high level of parasitaemia is an important feature of Plasmodium infection which could result in severe anaemia. The starting parasitaemia for the three replicates B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 before administration of ethanolic stem bark extracts of A.
After administration of extract, the results obtained from the present study showed that the ethanolic stem bark extract of A. This result suggested that the extract possesses some active phytochemical compounds that have direct effects on the parasites and the effect is dose-dependent [ 19 ].
The significant dose-dependent chemosuppressive effect of A. The chemosuppressive activity of These results are indication that plants of the genus Anthocleista possess phytochemical constituents that have antiparasitic property.
The mechanism of action of these extracts of Anthocleista species was however said to be similar to that of chloroquine, a standard antimalarial drug which induced the destruction of the asexual forms of the Plasmodium parasite [ 42 ]. This does not however rule out the chloroquine resistance to the Plasmodium species of mammals. Moreover, the fact that some rural settlements in Africa still rely more on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of malaria led to the identification of A.
The result obtained in this study showed that ethanolic extract of the stem bark of A. This plant can be recommended for use since it possessed a high chemosuppressive effect against the malaria and can be obtained at relatively no cost from the forest. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiplasmodial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Anthocleista vogelii at different doses in albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei NK Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Five groups B 1 —B 3 , D, and G were infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei parasitized red blood cells. Groups D, H, and G served as the controls.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Anthocleista vogelii Planch Loganiaceae is used in African Traditional Medicine for the treatment of pain and inflammatory disorders as well as sleeping sickness. Aim of the study: To determine the in vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro anti-trypanosomal activities of the extracts of A. Materials and methods: The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was evaluated using the egg albumin-induced rat paw oedema model while the in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity was assessed on Trypanosoma brucei brucei. The in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed on HeLa human cervix adenocarcinoma cell line.