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Chinnaswami Subramania Bharathi also known as Bharathiyar 11 December — 11 September , was a Tamil writer, poet, journalist, Indian independence activist , a social reformer and a polyglot. Popularly known as "Mahakavi Bharathi" "Great Poet Bharathi" , he was a pioneer of modern Tamil poetry and is considered one of the greatest Tamil literary figures of all time.
His numerous works included fiery songs kindling patriotism during the Indian Independence movement. Born in Ettayapuram of Tirunelveli district present day Thoothukudi in , Bharathi had his early education in Tirunelveli and Varanasi and worked as a journalist with many newspapers, including The Hindu , Bala Bharata, Vijaya, Chakravarthini, the Swadesamitran and India. In , an arrest warrant was issued against Bharati by the government of British India for his revolutionary writings, forcing him to flee to Pondicherry union Territory , where he lived until Bharathi's influence on Tamil literature is phenomenal.
Although it is said that he was proficient in around 14 languages his favorite language was Tamil. He was prolific in his output. He covered political, social and spiritual themes. The songs and poems composed by Bharati are very often used in Tamil cinema and have become staples in the literary and musical repertoire of Tamil artistes throughout the world. He paved the way for modern blank verse. Subbaiah, as he was named, went to the M. Hindu College in Tirunelveli. From a very young age, he was musically and poetically inclined.
Bharati lost his mother at the age of five and was brought up by his father who wanted him to learn English, excel in arithmetic, and become an engineer. Around the age of 11, he was conferred the title of "Bharati", the one blessed by Saraswati , the goddess of learning. He lost his father at the age of sixteen, but before that when he was 15, he married Chellamma who was seven years old. During his stay in Varanasi , Bharati was exposed to Hindu spirituality and nationalism.
This broadened his outlook and he learned Sanskrit, Hindi and English. In addition, he changed his outward appearance. He also grew a beard and wore a turban due to his admiration of Sikhs, influenced by his Sikh friend. Though he passed an entrance exam for a job, he returned to Ettayapuram during and started as the court poet of Raja of Ettayapuram for a couple of years. Bharati joined as Assistant Editor of the Swadesamitran , a Tamil daily in On his journey back home, he met Sister Nivedita , Swami Vivekananda 's spiritual heir.
She inspired Bharati to recognise the privileges of women and the emancipation of women exercised Bharati's mind. He visualised the new woman as an emanation of Shakti, a willing helpmate of man to build a new earth through co-operative endeavour. Among other greats such as Bal Gangadhar Tilak, he considered Nivedita as his Guru , and penned verses in her praise.
These newspapers were also a means of expressing Bharati's creativity, which began to peak during this period. Bharati started to publish his poems regularly in these editions.
From hymns to nationalistic writings, from contemplations on the relationship between God and Man to songs on the Russian and French revolutions, Bharati's subjects were diverse. Bharati participated in the historic Surat Congress in along with V. Chidambaram Pillai and Mandayam Srinivachariar, which deepened the divisions within the Indian National Congress with a section preferring armed resistance, primarily led by Tilak over moderate approach preferred by certain other sections.
Bharati supported Tilak with V. Chidambaram Pillai and Kanchi Varathachariyar. Tilak openly supported armed resistance against the British. In , the British instituted a case against V. Chidambaram Pillai. In the same year, the proprietor of the journal India was arrested in Madras. Faced with the prospect of arrest, Bharati escaped to Pondicherry , which was under French rule. The British tried to suppress Bharati's output by stopping remittances and letters to the papers.
Both India and Vijaya were banned in India in During his exile, Bharati had the opportunity to meet many other leaders of the revolutionary wing of the Independence movement like Aurobindo , Lajpat Rai and V. Aiyar, who had also sought asylum under the French. He was imprisoned in the Central prison in Cuddalore in custody for three weeks from 20 November to 14 December and was released after the intervention of Annie Besant and C.
Ramaswamy Aiyar. He was stricken by poverty during this period, resulting in his ill health. The following year, , Bharati met Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He resumed editing Swadesimeitran from in Madras modern day Chennai. He was badly affected by the imprisonments and by , when a General Amnesty Order finally removed restrictions on his movements, Bharati was already struggling. He was struck by an elephant named Lavanya at Parthasarathy temple , Triplicane , Chennai , whom he used to feed regularly.
When he fed an expired coconut to Lavanya the elephant , the elephant got fired up and attacked Bharati. Although he survived the incident, his health deteriorated a few months later and he died early morning on 11 September, at around 1 am.
Though Bharati was considered a people's poet, a great nationalist, outstanding freedom fighter and social visionary, it was recorded that there were only 14 people to attend his funeral. He delivered his last speech at Karungalpalayam Library in Erode, which was about the topic Man is Immortal. Bharati is considered as one of the pioneers of modern Tamil literature. He also employed novel ideas and techniques in his devotional poems.
Bharati's poetry expressed a progressive, reformist ideal. His imagery and the vigour of his verse were a forerunner to modern Tamil poetry in different aspects. He was the forerunner of a forceful kind of poetry that combined classical and contemporary elements. He had a prodigious output penning thousands of verses on diverse topics like Indian Nationalism, love songs, children's songs, songs of nature, glory of the Tamil language, and odes to prominent freedom fighters of India like Tilak , Gandhi and Lajpat Rai.
He even penned an ode to New Russia and Belgium. His insightful similes have been read by millions of Tamil readers. He was well-versed in various languages and translated speeches of Indian National reform leaders like Aurobindo , Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Swami Vivekananda.
It is the opinion of some litterateurs that Bharathiar's Panchali Sapatham, based on the story of Panchali Draupadi , is also an ode to Bharat Mata. That the Pandavass are the Indians, the Kauravas the British and the Kurukshetra war of Mahabharat that of the Indian freedom struggle. It certainly is ascribed to the rise of womanhood in society. He is known to have said, "Even if Indians are divided, they are children of one Mother, where is the need for foreigners to interfere?
He talks of building up India's defense, her ships sailing the high seas, success in manufacturing and universal education. He calls for sharing amongst states with wonderful imagery like the diversion of excess water of the Bengal delta to needy regions and a bridge to Sri Lanka. Bharati also wanted to abolish starvation. He sang, " Thani oru manithanakku unavu illayenil intha jagaththinai azhithiduvom" translated as " If one single man suffers from starvation, we will destroy the entire world".
Some of his poems are translated by Jayanthasri Balakrishnan in English in her blog, though not published. Even though he has strong opinions about Gods, he is also against false stories spread in epics and other part of social fabric in Tamil Nadu. The man called Bhima who submerged and swim inside the river and married the daughter of serpent king of fate;.
Bharati also fought against the caste system in Hindu society. Bharathi was born in an orthodox Brahmin family, he considered all living beings as equal and to illustrate this he performed the upanayanam for a young Dalit man and made him a Brahmin.
He also scorned the divisive tendencies being imparted into the younger generations by their elderly tutors during his time. He openly criticised the preachers for mixing their individual thoughts while teaching the Vedas , Upanishads and the Gita. He strongly advocated bringing the Dalits to the Hindu mainstream. It is a sin to divide people on caste basis.
The ones who are really of a superior class are the ones excelling in being just, wise, educated and loving. Here he expresses the love between human beings, where a man should not see their caste.
They should see them as human beings. Not only human beings, they should see them as their brothers and sisters. Which means a well educated person knows to treat them same and not by their caste. The Government of India in instituted a highest National Subramanyam Bharti Award conferred along with Ministry of Human Resource Development , annually confers on writers of outstanding works in Hindi literature.
Bharathiar University , a state university named after the poet, was established in at Coimbatore. Chidambaranar along with Subramanya Siva and Bharathiar with S. Subbaiah starring as Subramania Bharati. Though these two Poets are having three centuries time interval, the divine service and their contribution to the Tamil language are made them unparallel legends.
Both two poets are offered their services at vaigai river bank of thiruppuvanam. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Subramania Bharathi. He who forgets not God and fails not in his duty, no matter whatever befalls him and however much he suffers, will at the end attain honour and happiness.
Suttum vizhi. Ninnai charan adaindhen. Chinanjiru kiliye. Senthamizh naadu ennum pothinile. Aasai mugam.
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