DOROTHY BURLINGHAM PDF

Anna Freud at work. It is recognized among workers in education and in child psychology that children who have spent their entire lives in institutions present a type of their own and differ in various respects from children who develop under the conditions of family life. Superficial observation of children of this kind leaves a conflicting picture. They resemble, so far as outward appearances are concerned, children of middle-class families: they are well developed physically, properly nourished, decently dressed, have acquired clean habits and decent table manners, and can adapt themselves to rules and regulations. This shows up especially after they have left the institutions. It is because of these failures of development that in recent years thoughtful educationists have more and more turned against the whole idea of residential nurseries as such.

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Anna Freud at work. It is recognized among workers in education and in child psychology that children who have spent their entire lives in institutions present a type of their own and differ in various respects from children who develop under the conditions of family life. Superficial observation of children of this kind leaves a conflicting picture.

They resemble, so far as outward appearances are concerned, children of middle-class families: they are well developed physically, properly nourished, decently dressed, have acquired clean habits and decent table manners, and can adapt themselves to rules and regulations.

This shows up especially after they have left the institutions. It is because of these failures of development that in recent years thoughtful educationists have more and more turned against the whole idea of residential nurseries as such. And have devised methods of boarding out orphaned or destitute children with foster families, etc.

But since all efforts of this kind will probably not be able to do away altogether with the need for residential homes for infants, it remains a question of interest how far failures of the kind described are inherent in the nature of such institutions as distinct from family life, and how far they could be obviated if the former were ready and able to change their methods.

Careful comparison of our own residential children with children of the same ages who live with their own families has taught us some interesting facts. Advantages and disadvantages vary to an astonishing degree according to the periods of development.

In our former chapters we tried to establish one main fact: that small infants in a residential nursery, though they develop community reactions and enjoy the companionship of children of their own age, search further for objects towards whom they can direct all their emotional interests which they would normally direct toward their parents.

We have described how the grown-ups of the nursery are turned into parent-substitutes. It is our next task to discuss how far these emotional relationships satisfy the natural desires of the child and how far they are destined to fail in this respect. Visitors to all residential war nurseries, ours not excepted, will notice that single children often run up to them and, in spite of their being complete strangers, show off their shoes, their dresses or other articles of clothing.

This behavior is only shown by children who are emotionally starved and unattached. Paul, two, came to us as a completely homeless and unattached child.

At the age of three, he would still show off to everybody minute objects buttons, little sticks, tiny pieces of material which he picked up wherever he went. He was not really interested in these objects, they only served to draw attention to himself.

Bob, another homeless child, who had never lived with his own mother, went through a period of exhibitionism at the age of three. He displayed his genitals indiscriminately in front of everybody. To sum up once more: The infant who shares his bodily pleasures with its mother learns in this way to love an object in the outer world and not merely himself. Since we are used to seeing these developments happen under the influence of the Oedipal complex, i. Residential Nurseries offer excellent opportunities for detailed and unbroken observation of child-development.

If these opportunities were made use of widely, much valuable material about the emotional and educational response at these early ages might be collected and applied to the upbringing of other children who are lucky enough to live under more normal circumstances. Page Updated: Site designed by:.

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Burlingham-Tiffany, Dorothy (1891-1979)

Previously unpublished letters from Anna Freud and from Dorothy Burlingham are reproduced here. It used to belong to Anna Freud, and she gave it to one of her staff when her work with the concentration camp children was completed. I went to retrieve three bulging folders from its recesses to refresh my recollections from my time as secretary to Anna Freud. I discovered that their contents were not in any kind of order. Very good. I seem to have talked an awful lot.

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Dorothy Burlingham

She also began psychoanalysis with Sigmund Freud , and decided to become a lay analyst herself. Through her treatment she met Anna Freud , already a psychoanalyst, who started to treat the Burlingham children. Dorothy and Anna began working together and in they co-founded the Jackson Nursery in Vienna, which was quickly closed under the Nazi occupation. In , when the Freud family emigrated to England to escape Nazi persecution, Dorothy moved to London with them.

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She was closely associated with Anna Freud and her personal history is intimately linked to the psychoanalytic movement. In Dorothy wed a surgeon, Robert Burlingham, but their marriage was soon troubled, in great part due to his phobias and episodes of manic-depressive illness. The couple separated in After moving to Vienna with her four children in , Dorothy began analysis with Theodore Reik. Her life subsequently became entwined with that of the Freuds, as Anna Freud took her children into treatment. In spite of becoming Anna's close friend, Dorothy undertook a second analysis with Sigmund Freud. The situation was loaded with a series of fantastically complex entanglements.

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