The use of maltodextrin as a filler and citric acid as an acidulant was expected to improve the characteristics of corn cheese. The aims of this article were to 1 determine the optimum concentration of maltodextrin, papain, and citric acid in order to produce corn milk-based cheese analogue with the best characteristics; 2 determine the characteristics of cheese analogue produced using the optimum concentration. The optimum formula to produce cheese analogue with the highest protein content and yield was with the addition of 0. The cheese analogue produced from the optimum formula had moisture content of
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The use of maltodextrin as a filler and citric acid as an acidulant was expected to improve the characteristics of corn cheese. The aims of this article were to 1 determine the optimum concentration of maltodextrin, papain, and citric acid in order to produce corn milk-based cheese analogue with the best characteristics; 2 determine the characteristics of cheese analogue produced using the optimum concentration.
The optimum formula to produce cheese analogue with the highest protein content and yield was with the addition of 0. The cheese analogue produced from the optimum formula had moisture content of Therefore, it was possible to explore the sweet corn as ingredient of spread cheese that has low fat content. Milk and dairy products have high nutritional value that contributes to fulfilling nutrient and protect against chronic diseases [ 1 ]. To get the right benefits of the fat consumed, it is considered equally important to the balance of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids.
One of the dairy products that can be substituted with the other ingredients is cheese, whose product is called cheese analogue. Cheese analogue consists of milk protein and nondairy and substitute oil or milk fat as a substitution for milk solid.
The studies on cheese analogue that had been conducted were on, for example, cheese analogue made from soybeans [ 4 ], pectin gel [ 5 ], inulin [ 6 ], rice flour [ 7 ], apricot pulp [ 8 ], and replacement of fat types [ 9 ]. It is proven that vegetables, fruit, or cereals can be used as substitutes in making cheese analogue [ 10 ]. Sweet corn can be processed into extract that has milk-like taste, which can then be used to substitute for dairy products, for example, into corn yogurt [ 11 ].
Thus, sweet corn also has the potential to substitute in making cheese analogue. So far, there has been no research conducted on cheese analogue made from sweet corn extract.
In this study, we make analogue spread cheese because it is easy and fast to make. Production of cheese requires a coagulation process that usually uses the rennet enzyme [ 12 ]. Thus, the price of rennet is expensive. Therefore, it was necessary to find alternative source to other types of protease enzyme with cheaper prices.
Protease enzyme can be used as coagulant in cheese making, for example, from latex [ 14 ], bromelin from pineapple [ 15 ], and lime and star fruit [ 16 ]. In this study, papain was used as coagulant because it was easy to obtain and cheap. In the cheese production, it was necessary to add acidic ingredients that would assist the coagulation process by lowering the pH and determine the cheese texture. One of the acidic ingredients that could be used was citric acid [ 17 ].
The use or addition of citric acid could accelerate the coagulation of casein which would affect the protein content of the cheese produced. The making of cheese without ripening generally would produce a small amount of yield [ 19 ]. This was because the coagulation process of curd occurred in a short time and it made many solids dissolve in the whey.
The attempt to increase the cheese yield could be done by adding filler during the cheese making process [ 20 ]. Maltodextrin is used as filler in this study because it is cheap and the yield is high. The aims of this study were to 1 determine the optimum concentration of citric acid, papain, and maltodextrin to produce corn milk-based cheese analogue which had the highest yield; 2 determine the chemical and sensory characteristics of cheese analogue produced from the optimum formulation.
The experiment was conducted in three steps. The second was the determination of the optimum formula and its verification. The last step was the determination of the best product. Based on the Design Expert results, there were 20 formulas of cheese analogue that were tried. Each formula was tried and analyzed for its properties, such as moisture content [ 21 ], yield [ 19 ], dissolved protein [ 21 ], and acidity pH and fat content [ 21 ]. Moisture content was analyzed using the AOAC method in the following way: 2-gram sample is weighed and put in a bowl that has been dried.
Moisture content is the difference between the weight of the starting material and the weight of the final material after drying [ 21 ]. Yield calculation is based on the formula. Dissolved protein was analyzed by the method of Lowry-Folin in the following way: 0. Then 1 ml of the sample was taken and then put in a test tube.
The sample was added with 5. Then add 0. Then leave them for 30 minutes until the blue color is formed. The intensity of blue is measured by its absorbance using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of nm. Calculation of dissolved protein levels was determined using the standard bovine serum albumin curve. However, before being used in cheese, the pH meter is calibrated beforehand with buffer solution pH 7.
Fat content measurements were carried out by using Soxhlet as follows: grams of finely ground sample, wrapped in filter paper, inserted in Soxhlet extraction tube. Then a fat dish and extraction tube are installed on the distillation apparatus.
Soxhlet which has been filled with solvents is then drained by cooling water and the appliance is turned on. Extraction is carried out for hours. The residual weight in the fat dish is expressed as fat weight. The optimization process in second stage was done to obtain a formula with the most optimal response. The most optimal response was obtained if the desirability value approached 1 one. The optimized components were research factors concentration of citric acid, papain, and maltodextrin and variables observed in stage I moisture content, yield, soluble protein, pH, and fat.
The relative importance of the component and the measured response was directly proportional to the weighting value given. It meant that the higher the relative importance of the component and the measured response, the greater the weighting value given. Data processing was done using Design Expert. At the third step, the optimum formula 3 formulas obtained from stage 2 was then analyzed for its sensory properties.
Sensory analysis was done by examining the color, taste, aroma, texture, spread ability, and preference using a rank test. In testing the level of preference, trained panelists were invited to give their assessment. Out of the three optimum formulas, the best formula was then chosen. Cheese analogue was made using a modified method [ 22 ]. The blended corn is then filtered, so that corn extract is obtained. The next stage is the addition of citric acid, papain, and maltodextrin, which is then allowed to stand for 30 minutes.
To the milk that has undergone coagulation then ml of hot water is added and then pressed. To the pressed milk ml of hot water is then added and pressed second pressing for 30 minutes.
The yield of cheese analogue was This was because maltodextrin was added as filler in this study which also increased the yield. Yield of cheese analogue from sweet corn extract was affected by concentration of citric acid and maltodextrin.
An increase in the concentration of citric acid would decrease the cheese yield Figure 1. According to [ 23 ], the higher addition of acid during cheese production by direct acidification would make the yield low. This was likely due to protein instability under acid condition during proteolysis. The more citric acid added would make the pH decrease. It would then result in higher proteolysis so that the amount of protein dissolved in liquid increase.
Dissolved protein was inversely proportional to the cheese yield. Therefore, the higher dissolved protein, the fewer yields. The addition of maltodextrin in the cheese analogue making increases the yield Figure 1. Maltodextrin has a hygroscopic property which is able to absorb more water and increase the cheese yield. Maltodextrin also functions as filler to increase the volume, creating the cheese texture, as carrier and crystallization inhibitor [ 24 ].
The addition of papain did not affect the yield. This result is slightly different from [ 25 ] which makes cheese using papain and the yield was higher According to [ 25 ], the higher amount of papain will increase the yield due to the enzymatic reactions. The difference between the results of this study and the previous is due to the differences in ingredients and the amount of papain.
Papain used in this study was 0. The higher the addition of maltodextrin, the more the analogue cheese dissolved solids. With the presence of maltodextrin, the suspended particle will be trapped in the system and will not settle by the influence of the gravitational force. The higher the concentration of citric acid, the more the dissolved solids.
Citric acid can hydrolyze sucrose into glucose and fructose. The more the concentration of citric acid, the higher the glucose and fructose formed, so that dissolved solids of cheese analogues increase.
The higher concentration of papain added increases the total dissolved solids of cheese analogues. The higher the papain, the higher the proteolytic activity, so that the amino acid produced is also high. Amino acids are dissolved solids so that dissolved solids in analogue cheese increase.
The pH of cheese analogue was 5. The citric acid was inversely proportional to the pH of the cheese analogue. The more citric acid added to cheese analogue making, the lower pH of cheese analogue. This result is similar to [ 18 ] which states that increasing the amount of citric acid in cheese production will reduce the pH of the cheese analogue. The increase of maltodextrin will reduce the pH of the cheese Figure 2 : pH of cheese analogue.
Maltodextrin contains many hydroxyl OH groups that were able to neutralize the acidity properties of the products. The higher concentrations of the maltodextrin will be increasing the pH so that it would help to reduce the sour taste. To get the maximum yield and total solids, the pH should be adjusted to reach the isoelectric point 4.
However, in this study the pH was not adjusted to the isoelectric point since the adjustment in this study was based on the amount of citric acid added.
PEMANFAATAN MILK CLOTTING ENZYME DARI Lactobacillus casei D11 UNTUK PEMBUATAN KEJU MOZZARELLA
Important User Information: Remote access to EBSCO's databases is permitted to patrons of subscribing institutions accessing from remote locations for personal, non-commercial use. However, remote access to EBSCO's databases from non-subscribing institutions is not allowed if the purpose of the use is for commercial gain through cost reduction or avoidance for a non-subscribing institution. In this study, MCE of L. Organoleptic properties is determined by hedonics test involving 30 respondents and analyzed statistically which was followed Duncan's test. Furthermore, proximate analysis of mozzarella cheese was conducted. Our results show that the MCE activity produced by L. The optimum concentration of MCE and rennet for the production of curd suited for the production of mozzarella cheese were 20 and 0.
The Formulation of Cheese Analogue from Sweet Corn Extract
Mozzarella cheese is a food which is very risky to the growth of microorganisms since it has high water content by One way to overcome that problem is to identify and analyze the risks found in the production process of mozzarella cheese. Therefore, the researchers examined the identification and risk analysis of mozzarella cheese production process by conducting a case study in CV XYZ. The results revealed that there were 11 risks from 8 steps of the production process. Of the 11 risks, the risks which were included in the critical risks were the risk of contamination during the curd clotting process, low-quality of milk, severe stretcher machine damage, and overly acidic cheese taste. The result of quantitative analysis of FTA indicated that the risk probability during mozzarella cheese production process was 0.