Kelainan yang dialami Kartina itu menarik perhatian dokter spesialis bedah dan konsultan bedah tumor kanker di Padang, Daan Khambri. Menurut dia, wanita dengan empat payudara itu di dunia kedokteran dikenal dengan mammae aberans atau mammae accessories. Hal itu dapat terjadi pada siapa saja, baik laki-laki maupun perempuan, dan merupakan bawaan lahir. Perkembangan seperti itu terjadi saat bayi dalam kandungan.
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Kelainan yang dialami Kartina itu menarik perhatian dokter spesialis bedah dan konsultan bedah tumor kanker di Padang, Daan Khambri. Menurut dia, wanita dengan empat payudara itu di dunia kedokteran dikenal dengan mammae aberans atau mammae accessories. Hal itu dapat terjadi pada siapa saja, baik laki-laki maupun perempuan, dan merupakan bawaan lahir.
Perkembangan seperti itu terjadi saat bayi dalam kandungan. Yakni, pada minggu keenam hingga kesepuluh pada peristiwa pembentukan organ tubuh organo genesis. Biasanya, payudara tambahan paling banyak ditemui di daerah ketiak dan nomor dua terbanyak di bawah dada.
Milk line yang dimaksud Daan mulai ketiak hingga lipatan paha. Kelainan itu hingga saat ini belum diketahui penyebabnya. Tapi, perempuan memiliki risiko dua kali lebih rentan dibanding laki-laki. Keadaan tersebut tidak berbahaya, tetapi mengganggu. Sebab, saat hamil air susu juga keluar, payudara membesar, dan muncul rasa nyeri seperti payudara normal. Yang lebih mengkhawatirkan, segala penyakit payudara pun dapat dialami.
Misalnya, kanker payudara dan penyakit lain. Untuk menghindarinya, Daan menyarankan para ibu hamil menjaga kesehatan. Terutama pada minggu ke-6 hingga ke Ibu diharapkan menjaga asupan gizi. Jangan makan obat sembarangan, seperti obat penenang luminal. Sebab, luminal dapat menyebabkan terjadinya bibir sumbing. Kelainan lain yang dapat terjadi di masa ini, antara lain bayi yang tidak punya anus, usus keluar, pusar membesar, dan lain-lain. Menurut dia, kejadian seperti yang dialami Kartina cukup langka.
Kelenjar payudara tambahan itu biasanya diketahui ketika pasien hamil dan menyusui. Namun, bila tak digunakan untuk menyusui, kelenjar payudara tambahan itu otomatis menyusut. Greg mengaku juga pernah menangani pasien dengan kelainan tersebut. Karena itu, pasien minta kelenjar payudara tambahan tersebut dibuntu saja. A cystic hygroma is a sac-like structure with a thin wall that most commonly occurs in the head and neck area. Reference from A. Alternative Names Lymphangioma Causes A cystic hygroma is a birth defect.
It occurs as the baby grows in the womb from pieces of material that carries fluid and white blood cells. Such material is called embryonic lymphatic tissue. After birth, a cystic hygroma usually looks like a soft bulge under the skin. The cyst can't be seen until after birth, and sometimes is not noticed until the person is older. Symptoms A common symptom is a neck mass found at birth, or discovered later in an infant after an upper respiratory tract infection.
Exams and Tests The following tests may be done:. Treatment Treatment involves complete removal of the abnormal tissue whenever possible. However, cystic hygromas can often invade other neck structures, making this impossible. Other treatments have been attempted with only limited success. These include:. Outlook Prognosis The outlook is good if surgery can totally remove the abnormal tissue. In cases where complete removal is not possible, the cystic hygroma commonly returns.
Possible Complications Complications may include:. Bleeding Damage to structures in the neck caused by surgery Infection Return of the cystic hygroma. When to Contact a Medical Professional If you notice a lump in your neck or your child's neck, call your doctor.
Background First described by Wernher in , cystic hygroma CH is a cystic lymphatic lesion that can affect any anatomic subsite in the human body. Within the neck, the posterior triangle tends to be most frequently affected. CH is synonymous with cystic lymphangioma, which is also known as a macrocystic lymphatic malformation and was first described in by Redenbacker. Pathophysiology Lymphangiomas are thought to arise from a combination of the following: a failure of lymphatics to connect to the venous system, abnormal budding of lymphatic tissue, and sequestered lymphatic rests that retain their embryonic growth potential.
These lymphatic rests can penetrate adjacent structures or dissect along fascial planes and eventually become canalized. These spaces retain their secretions and develop cystic components because of the lack of a venous outflow tract. The nature of the surrounding tissue determines whether the lymphangioma is capillary, cavernous, or cystic. CHs tend to form in loose areolar tissue, whereas capillary and cavernous forms of lymphangiomas tend to form in muscle. Studies using cell proliferation markers have demonstrated that lymphangioma enlargement is related more to engorgement than to actual cell proliferation.
Molecular studies suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor C VEGF-C and its receptors may play an important role in the development of lymphatic malformations. In addition to congential development, lymphangiomas can be acquired. They can arise from trauma including surgery , inflammation, or obstruction of a lymphatic drainage pathway. Frequency International The incidence of CH is estimated to be 1 case per 6,, live births.
Obviously, this figure is pertinent in the larger-sized lesions. As expected, morbidity depends on the anatomic location of the CH. In general, morbidity is related to cosmetic disfigurement and impingement on other critical structures such as nerves, vessels, lymphatics, and the airway. Race Most series report no racial predominance, although a decreased incidence in African Americans has been described.
Sex The sex distribution is equal. Some authors believe that all CHs are present at birth, although they may have not yet fully manifested at that time. CH can be visualized using abdominal ultrasonography by 10 weeks' gestation, although transvaginal ultrasonography provides superior detail.
Elevated alpha fetoprotein levels in amniocentesis fluid has been reported in pregnancies with CH. Clinical History The presenting signs and symptoms of the cystic hygroma CH vary depending on the lesion's location.
The microcystic form of lymphangioma tends to predominate over CH in the oral cavity and oropharynx. Microcystic lymphangiomas commonly appear as clusters of clear, black, or red vesicles on the buccal mucosa or tongue. CHs tend to predominate below the mylohyoid muscle and can involve both the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck.
The cysts are typically large and thick walled and have little involvement of surrounding tissue. The overlying skin can take on a bluish hue or may appear normal. CHs often present after a sudden increase in size secondary to infection or intralesional bleeding. Spontaneous decompression or shrinkage is uncommon. This situation may involve children with CH or other spaceoccupying lesions of the supraglottis or paraglottic region. Suprahyoid lymphangiomas tend to cause more breathing difficulties than infrahyoid lesions.
Potentially life-threatening airway compromise that manifests as noisy breathing stridor and cyanosis is a possible symptom of lymphangiomas. Feeding difficulties, as well as failure to thrive, may alert the clinician to a potential lymphangioma. This is especially true when the lesion affects structures of the upper aerodigestive tract. CHs are typically soft, painless, compressible doughy masses. A CH typically transilluminates. In children who present with CH of the neck, closely evaluate for tracheal deviation or other evidence of impending airway obstruction.
Closely inspect the tongue, oral cavity, hypopharynx, and larynx because any involvement may lead to airway obstruction. Referral to an airway expert otolaryngologist to potentially perform a fiberoptic airway evaluation is justified in patients with a lymphatic malformation. CH has been noted to be more common in persons with Turner syndrome, Down syndrome, and trisomy 18 and 13, although these are not considered a cause. In addition, several nonchromosomal disorders, including Noonan syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Fryns syndrome, multiple pterygium syndrome, and achondroplasia are associated with an increased incidence of CH.
Intrauterine alcohol exposure has been associated with the development of lymphangiomas. Dissolution of bone caused by either lymphangiomas or hemangiomas is termed Gorham-Stout syndrome. Cystic hygroma, colli Thangam R. Synonyms: Lymphangioma, jugular lymphatic obstructive sequence, hygroma colli cysticum. Log masuk Ayo Mulai. Download for free Report this document. Embed Size px x x x x Transcript of Hy Groma Kelainan yang dialami Kartina itu menarik perhatian dokter spesialis bedah dan konsultan bedah tumor kanker di Padang, Daan Khambri.
Exams and Tests The following tests may be done: Chest x-ray Ultrasound CT scan Treatment Treatment involves complete removal of the abnormal tissue whenever possible. These include: Chemotherapy medications Injection of sclerosing medications Radiation therapy Steroids Outlook Prognosis The outlook is good if surgery can totally remove the abnormal tissue.
Possible Complications Complications may include: Bleeding Damage to structures in the neck caused by surgery Infection Return of the cystic hygroma When to Contact a Medical Professional If you notice a lump in your neck or your child's neck, call your doctor. Physical CHs are typically soft, painless, compressible doughy masses.
Accessory breast tissue is a relatively common congenital condition in which abnormal accessory breast tissue is seen in addition to the presence of normal breast tissue. This normal variant can present as a mass anywhere along the course of the embryologic mammary streak axilla to the inguinal region. Most women are unaware of their accessory breast tissue and it is detected incidentally on a mammogram. Discomfort, pain, milk secretion, axillary thickening, and local skin irritation can occur. Accessory breast tissue responds to hormonal stimulation and may become more evident during menarche, pregnancy, or lactation.
Accessory Breast Carcinoma
Roger A. Introduction Introduction to to the the Breast Breast. Structure of the Breast. Compartmentalization Compartmentalization. Ducts Ducts. Advanced Advanced Carcinoma Carcinoma.
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