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The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars primarily used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia , Laos , Myanmar and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions.

While the calendars share a common lineage, they also have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar.

The Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are largely based on an older version of the Hindu calendar , [1] which uses the sidereal year as the solar year. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, do not use apparent reckoning to stay in sync with the sidereal year. Instead, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle.

However, since the Metonic cycle is not very accurate for sidereal years, the Southeast Asian calendar is slowly drifting out of sync with the sidereal, approximately one day every years. Yet no coordinated structural reforms of the lunisolar calendar have been undertaken. Today, the traditional Buddhist lunisolar calendar is used mainly for Theravada Buddhist festivals, and no longer has the official calendar status anywhere.

The calculation methodology of the current versions of Southeast Asian Buddhist calendars is largely based on that of the Burmese calendar , which was in use in various Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the 19th century under the names of Chula Sakarat and Jolak Sakaraj.

The Burmese calendar in turn was based on the "original" Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India believed to be Ardharatrika school. It is unclear from where, when or how the Metonic system was introduced; hypotheses range from China to Europe. However, not all traditions agree on when it actually took place.

The calendar recognizes two types of months: synodic month and sidereal month. The days of the month are counted in two halves, waxing and waning. The 15th of the waxing is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day is the last day of the month 14th or 15th waning. Because of the inaccuracy of the calendrical calculation systems, the mean and real true New Moons rarely coincide.

The mean New Moon often precedes the real New Moon. As the Synodic lunar month is approximately This means reading ancient texts and inscriptions in Thailand requires constant vigilance, not just in making sure one is correctly operating for the correct region, but also for variations within regions itself when incursions cause a variation in practice.

The Buddhist calendar is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on solar years. One of its primary objectives is to synchronize the lunar part with the solar part. Therefore, some form of addition to the lunar year of intercalation is necessary. The overall basis for it is provided by cycles of 57 years.

Eleven extra days are inserted in every 57 years, and seven extra months of 30 days are inserted in every 19 years 21 months in 57 years. This provides complete days to both calendars. As such, the calendar adds an intercalary month in leap years and sometimes also an intercalary day in great leap years.

The intercalary month not only corrects the length of the year but also corrects the accumulating error of the month to extent of half a day. The average length of the month is further corrected by adding a day to Nayon at irregular intervals—a little more than seven times in two cycles 39 years. The intercalary day is never inserted except in a year which has an intercalary month. The Burmese calendar however always inserts the intercalary month at the same time of the year, after the summer solstice while the Arakanese calendar inserts it after the vernal equinox.

Note: The Arakanese calendar adds the intercalary day in Tagu, not in Nayon. The Cambodian, Lao and Thai lunisolar calendars use a slightly different method to place the intercalary day. Instead of it in a leap year as in the Burmese system, the Thai system places it in a separate year. Thus, the Thai small leap year has days while the Thai great leap year has days.

Since the main purpose of Buddhist calendar is to keep pace with the solar year, the new year is always marked by the solar year , which falls at the time when the Sun enters Aries. In the 20th century, the New Year's Day fell on April 15 or 16th but in the 17th century, it fell on April 9 or 10th.

The Cambodian, Lao and Thai systems give animal names to the years from a cycle of The Cambodian calendar also maintains a year naming cycle numbered one to ten. Cambodians use multiple systems to identify a given year. Each number in the cycle corresponds to the last digit of the year in the Chula Sakarat calendar. The Southeast Asian Buddhist calendars use lunar months but try to keep pace with the solar year, by inserting intercalary months and days on the Metonic cycle in the case of the Burmese calendar, on a modified Metonic cycle.

However, the solar year as defined by the Buddhist calendars is really a sidereal year , which is nearly 24 minutes longer than the actual mean tropical year. Therefore, like all sidereal-based calendars, the lunisolar calendars are slowly drifting away from the seasons. There is no known internationally concerted effort to stop this drift. Thailand has moved its "Buddhist Era" to the Gregorian calendar under the name of Thai solar calendar.

In Myanmar, Burmese calendarists have tried to deal with the issue by periodically modifying the intercalation schedule in the Metonic cycle. One major downside of this approach is that it is not possible to publish future calendars more than a few years often even a year ahead. It was not a separate calendar but simply a year numbering system that employed the organization and calculation methods of the prevailing lunisolar calendars in use throughout the region.

The tradition of using different reference calendars continued in Siam in when King Vajiravudh decreed that the Buddhist Era would now track the Thai solar calendar , the Siamese version of the Gregorian calendar with the New Year's Day of 1 April.

Therefore, the Thai Buddhist Era year of began on 1 April as opposed to 15 April according to the lunisolar calendar [19]. As a result, the Year was only 9 months long, and the Thai Buddhist Era equals that of the Common Era plus years. The lunisolar calendar is used to mark important Buddhist holidays. Many of the holidays are celebrated as public holidays.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Dharma Concepts. Buddhist texts. Buddhism by country. However, the Metonic cycle, which employs tropical years, is incompatible with sidereal based Hindu calendars, and thus was not and still is not used in Hindu calendars. Chatterjee suggests that the Metonic system was introduced to Burma by Europeans. Ohashi — rejects Chatterjee's hypothesis saying that "no other trace of European influence is found in South-East Asian astronomy. However, the new solar year it chose was actually 0.

The Konbaung court also modified the Metonic cycle, which did more to re-synchronize the calendar with the seasons than the less accurate solar year. Smith 11 : Ayutthaya adopted the Burmese calendar in the 16th century. Lunar Lunisolar Solar. Runic Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar round. Electronic Perpetual Wall.

Era Epoch Regnal name Regnal year Year zero. List of calendars Category. Topics in Buddhism. Outline Glossary Index.

Category Religion portal. Categories : Buddhist culture Calendar eras Specific calendars. Hidden categories: Articles containing Sanskrit-language text Articles containing Pali-language text Articles containing Burmese-language text Articles containing Khmer-language text Articles containing Sinhala-language text Articles containing Thai-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Commons category link is on Wikidata CS1 uses Thai-language script th CS1 Thai-language sources th CS1 Burmese-language sources my.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Contribute Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Glossary of Buddhism. Part of a series on. Outline Religion portal. It also marks the beginning of the next Buddhist calendar animal zodiac year for certain countries.

Buddha Day Vesak. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Buddhist Era.

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Google Maps are not working at present; we are working on a replacement. The following links give information on all eclipses of the Sun and Moon from through the current year. The Javascript Solar Eclipse Explorer lets you calculate the visibility of solar eclipses from any city for hundreds of years in the past and future:. Search for solar eclipses by date interval, type, and magnitude, and plot the results on Google maps:. The table below lists every solar eclipse from through

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The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars primarily used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia , Laos , Myanmar and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they also have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar. The Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are largely based on an older version of the Hindu calendar , [1] which uses the sidereal year as the solar year. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, do not use apparent reckoning to stay in sync with the sidereal year. Instead, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle.

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The Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth and the fifth largest moon in the Solar System. It is the largest natural satellite in the solar system relative to the size of its planet. The following is information specific for Buenos Aires, Argentina during December The information in the following table comes from calculations published by the Astronomical Applications Department of the U. Naval Observatory.

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