This brilliant tale of romance and emotions attracted William Jones so much that he translated the play in English during the year and the tradition of translating the work of Kalidasa is continuing even today. The play was not composed entirely in Sanskrit and contains elements of a Middle Indian dialect known as Maharashtri Prakrit. There is no certainty about the exact timeline or period in which the play of Kalidasa is written. The reason behind this uncertainty is due to the fact that there is no historical evidence about when Kalidasa was born and the period of his lifetime varies from 2 nd century B. C to 4 th century A.
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In the Adi Parva of Mahabharata , Kanva says:. King Dushyanta first encountered Shakuntala while travelling through the forest with his army. He was pursuing a male deer wounded by his weapon. Shakuntala and Dushyanta fell in love with each other and got married as per Gandharva marriage system. Before returning to his kingdom, Dushyanta gave his personal royal ring to Shakuntala as a symbol of his promise to return and bring her to his palace.
Shakuntala spent much time dreaming of her new husband and was often distracted by her daydreams. One day, a powerful rishi, Durvasa , came to the ashrama but, lost in her thoughts about Dushyanta, Shakuntala failed to greet him properly.
Incensed by this slight, the rishi cursed Shakuntala, saying that the person she was dreaming of would forget about her altogether. As he departed in a rage, one of Shakuntala's friends quickly explained to him the reason for her friend's distraction.
The rishi, realizing that his extreme wrath was not warranted, modified his curse saying that the person who had forgotten Shakuntala would remember everything again if she showed him a personal token that had been given to her. Time passed, and Shakuntala, wondering why Dushyanta did not return for her, finally set out for the capital city with her foster father and some of her companions.
On the way, they had to cross a river by a canoe ferry and, seduced by the deep blue waters of the river, Shakuntala ran her fingers through the water. Her ring Dushyanta's ring slipped off her finger without her realizing it. Arriving at Dushyanta's court, Shakuntala was hurt and surprised when her husband did not recognize her, nor recollected anything about her. Humiliated, she returned to the forests and, collecting her son, settled in a wild part of the forest by herself.
Here she spent her days while Bharata , her son, grew older. Surrounded only by wild animals, Bharata grew to be a strong youth and made a sport of opening the mouths of tigers and lions and counting their teeth.
Meanwhile, a fisherman was surprised to find a royal ring in the belly of a fish he had caught. Recognizing the royal seal, he took the ring to the palace and, upon seeing his ring, Dushyanta 's memories of his lovely bride came rushing back to him.
He immediately set out to find her and, arriving at her father's ashram, discovered that she was no longer there. He continued deeper into the forest to find his wife and came upon a surprising scene in the forest: a young boy had pried open the mouth of a lion and was busy counting its teeth.
The king greeted the boy, amazed by his boldness and strength, and asked his name. He was surprised when the boy answered that he was Bharata, the son of King Dushyanta. The boy took him to Shakuntala, and thus the family was reunited. An alternate narrative is that after Dushyanta failed to recognize Shakuntala, her mother Menaka took Shakuntala to Heaven where she gave birth to Bharata.
Dushyanta was required to fight with the devas , from which he emerged victorious; his reward was to be reunited with his wife and son. He had a vision in which he saw a young boy counting the teeth of a lion. Dushyanta was informed by the devas that only Bharata's mother or father could tie it back on his arm.
Dushyanta successfully tied it on his arm. The confused Bharata took the king to his mother Shakuntala and told her that this man claimed to be his father. Upon which Shakuntala told Bharata that the king was indeed his father. Thus the family was reunited in Heaven, and they returned to earth to rule for many years before the birth of the Pandava. The Indian plaque of Ai Khanoum. The Recognition of Sakuntala is a Sanskrit play written by Kalidasa.
Sakuntala is an incomplete opera by Franz Schubert , which originated late to early By the 18th century, Western poets were beginning to get acquainted with works of Indian literature and philosophy. Wouldst thou the young year's blossoms and the fruits of its decline And all by which the soul is charmed, enraptured, feasted, fed, Wouldst thou the earth and heaven itself in one sole name combine?
I name thee, O Sakuntala! The earliest adaptation into a film was the Tamil movie Shakuntalai featuring M. Subbulakshmi in the role of Shakuntala. Bhupen Hazarika made the Assamese film Shakuntala in It won the President's Silver Medal and was critically acclaimed. Shakuntala was also made into a Malayalam movie by the same name in It starred K.
Vijaya and Prem Nazeer as Shakuntala and Dushyanta respectively. Rajyam Pictures of C. Lakshmi Rajyam and K. Sridhar Rao produced a Shakuntala film in starring N. Rama Rao as Dushyanta and B. Saroja Devi as Shakuntala. It is directed by Kamalakara Kameswara Rao. On the Marathi stage there was a musical drama titled Shakuntal on the same story.
Camille Claudel created a sculpture Shakuntala. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Shakuntala disambiguation. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs additional citations for verification.
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Main article: Shakuntala play. Dolls of India. Retrieved 8 March Theater of Memory: The Plays of Kalidasa. New York: Columbia University Press. Shakuntala Recognized. Translated by G. Victoria, BC, Canada: iUniverse. Music of the Soviet Era: — Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 22 February Categories : Characters in the Mahabharata People in Hindu mythology.
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The Bhita plaque. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shakuntala. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Shakuntala.
In the Adi Parva of Mahabharata , Kanva says:. King Dushyanta first encountered Shakuntala while travelling through the forest with his army. He was pursuing a male deer wounded by his weapon. Shakuntala and Dushyanta fell in love with each other and got married as per Gandharva marriage system. Before returning to his kingdom, Dushyanta gave his personal royal ring to Shakuntala as a symbol of his promise to return and bring her to his palace. Shakuntala spent much time dreaming of her new husband and was often distracted by her daydreams.
Plots similar to the play appear in earlier texts. There is a story mentioned in the Mahabharata. A story of similar plot appear in the buddhist Jataka tales as well. In the Mahabharata the story appears as a precursor to the Pandava and Kaurava's lineages. In the story King Dushyanta and Shakuntala meet in the forest and get estranged and ultimately reunited.
Abhijnanasakuntalam: A Summary of epic poet Kalidasa’s play