Cadbury , formerly Cadbury's and Cadbury Schweppes , is a British multinational confectionery company wholly owned by Mondelez International originally Kraft Foods since It is the second largest confectionery brand in the world after Mars. It is known for its Dairy Milk chocolate, the Creme Egg and Roses selection box, and many other confectionery products. One of the best-known British brands, in The Daily Telegraph named Cadbury among Britain's most successful exports. Cadbury was established in Birmingham , England in , by John Cadbury who sold tea, coffee and drinking chocolate. Cadbury developed the business with his brother Benjamin, followed by his sons Richard and George.
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Cadbury , formerly Cadbury's and Cadbury Schweppes , is a British multinational confectionery company wholly owned by Mondelez International originally Kraft Foods since It is the second largest confectionery brand in the world after Mars. It is known for its Dairy Milk chocolate, the Creme Egg and Roses selection box, and many other confectionery products. One of the best-known British brands, in The Daily Telegraph named Cadbury among Britain's most successful exports.
Cadbury was established in Birmingham , England in , by John Cadbury who sold tea, coffee and drinking chocolate. Cadbury developed the business with his brother Benjamin, followed by his sons Richard and George. George developed the Bournville estate, a model village designed to give the company's workers improved living conditions. Dairy Milk chocolate, introduced in , used a higher proportion of milk within the recipe compared with rival products. By , the chocolate was the company's best-selling product.
Cadbury, alongside Rowntree's and Fry's , were the big three British confectionery manufacturers throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries. Cadbury was granted its first Royal Warrant from Queen Victoria in John Cadbury's sons Richard and George took over the business in The firm's first major breakthrough occurred in when Richard and George introduced an improved cocoa into Britain. Manufacturing their first Easter egg in , Cadbury created the modern chocolate Easter egg after developing a pure cocoa butter that could be moulded into smooth shapes.
In , the brothers decided to build new premises in countryside four miles from Birmingham. With the development of the Birmingham West Suburban Railway along the path of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal , they acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising Located next to the Stirchley Street railway station , which itself was opposite the canal, they renamed the estate Bournville and opened the Bournville factory the following year. As the Cadbury family were Quakers there were no pubs in the estate.
In , following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars. In , Cadbury launched its Dairy Milk bar, a production of exceptional quality with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars. Cadbury's Milk Tray was first produced in and continued in production throughout the remainder of the First World War. More than 2, of Cadbury's male employees joined the British Armed Forces , and to support the British war effort, Cadbury provided chocolate, books and clothing to the troops.
In , Cadbury opened their first overseas factory in Hobart , Tasmania. In , Cadbury merged with J. Cadbury expanded its product range with Flake , Creme eggs , Fruit and Nut , and Crunchie , originally under the Fry's label. By , Cadbury was the 24th-largest British manufacturing company as measured by estimated market value of capital.
Chocolate ceased to be a luxury product and became affordable to the working classes for the first time. During World War II, parts of the Bournville factory were turned over to war work, producing milling machines and seats for fighter aircraft. Workers ploughed football fields to plant crops. As chocolate was regarded as an essential food, it was placed under government supervision for the entire war.
The wartime rationing of chocolate ended in , and normal production resumed. Cadbury subsequently invested in new factories and had an increasing demand for their products.
Cadbury merged with drinks company Schweppes to form Cadbury Schweppes in The merger put an end to Cadbury's close links to its Quaker founding family and its perceived social ethos by instilling a capitalist venturer philosophy in management. In March , it was revealed that Cadbury Schweppes was planning to split its business into two separate entities: one focusing on its main chocolate and confectionery market; the other on its US drinks business. Between and jobs were affected by this change.
Production transferred to other plants in England and Poland. This sale included factories at Pontefract, Cleckheaton and York and a distribution centre near Chesterfield, and the transfer of around employees. In mid, Cadbury replaced some of the cocoa butter in their non-UK chocolate products with palm oil. Despite stating this was a response to consumer demand to improve taste and texture, there was no "new improved recipe" claim placed on New Zealand labels.
Consumer backlash was significant from environmentalists and chocolate lovers in both Australia and New Zealand, with consumers objecting to both the taste from the cheaper formulation, and the use of palm oil given its role in the destruction of rainforests. By August , the company announced that it was reverting to the use of cocoa butter in New Zealand and Australia, although palm oil is still listed as an ingredient in Cadbury's flavoured sugar syrup based fillings where it referred to as 'vegetable oil'.
The offer was rejected, with Cadbury stating that it undervalued the company. The Hershey Company , based in Pennsylvania , manufactures and distributes Cadbury-branded chocolate but not its other confectionery in the United States and has been reported to share Cadbury's "ethos".
The acquisition of Cadbury faced widespread disapproval from the British public, as well as groups and organisations including trade union Unite ,  who fought against the acquisition of the company which, according to Prime Minister Gordon Brown , was very important to the British economy. This was achieved on 5 February, and the company announced that Cadbury shares would be de-listed on 8 March.
Stitzer had worked at the company for 27 years. Staff at Keynsham criticised this move, suggesting that they felt betrayed and as if they have been "sacked twice". As part of the deal Kraft will keep the Cadbury, Hall's and other brands along with two plants in Skarbimierz.
Lotte will take over the plant in Warsaw along with the E Wedel brand. On 4 August , Kraft Foods announced they would be splitting into two companies beginning on 1 October The confectionery business of Kraft became Mondelez International , of which Cadbury is a subsidiary.
Beginning in , Mondelez began closing Cadbury factories in several developed countries including Ireland, Canada, the United States, and New Zealand and shifting production to "advantaged" country locations like China, India, Brazil, and Mexico.
The closure of Cadbury factories in centres such as Dublin , Montreal , Chicago , Philadelphia , and Dunedin in New Zealand generated outcries from the local populations. Cadbury relocated to Uxbridge from its previous head office at 25 Berkeley Square in Mayfair , City of Westminster in as a cost-saving measure.
Located four miles south of Birmingham, England, the Cadbury plant in Bournville was opened in by company founder John Cadbury's son George , whose aim was that one-tenth of the Bournville estate should be "laid out and used as parks, recreation grounds and open space. Bournville employs almost 1, people. Bournville is home to Mondelez's Global Centre of Excellence for Chocolate research and development, so every new chocolate product created by Cadbury starts life at the Birmingham plant.
Mondelez also sells biscuits bearing the Cadbury brand, such as Cadbury Fingers. Cadbury also owns Trebor Bassett, Fry's and Maynards. Ice cream based on Cadbury products, like 99 Flake , is made under licence by Frederick's Dairies. Cadbury cakes and chocolate spread are manufactured under licence by Premier Foods , but the cakes were originally part of Cadbury Foods Ltd with factories at Blackpole in Worcester and Moreton on the Wirral , with distribution depots throughout the UK.
The third is in Rathmore, County Kerry. Cadbury used to produce the Time Out bar in Ireland for the European market however this production was moved to Poland. Cadbury Adams produces candy , gum , breath mints and cough drops. It is headquartered in Parsippany, New Jersey. Accordingly, although the Cadbury group's chocolate products have been sold in the U. Cadbury's products were first imported into Australia as early as when 3 cases of Cadbury's cocoa and chocolate were advertised for sale in Adelaide.
In , as part of its plans to expand internationally, the company decided to build a factory in Australia. In Claremont, Tasmania was chosen for the location because of its close proximity to the city of Hobart, good source of inexpensive hydro-electricity and plentiful supply of high-quality fresh milk. The first products from the factory were sold in Cadbury also operates a milk-processing plant in Cooee, Tasmania.
Claremont factory was once a popular tourist attraction and operated daily tours; however, the factory ceased running full tours mid, citing health and safety reasons. On 27 February , the confectionery and beverages businesses of Cadbury Schweppes in Australia were formally separated and the beverages business began operating as Schweppes Australia Pty Ltd.
In the Australian Cadbury factory, located in Hobart , reduced its work force by 80  and in closed its visitor's centre. Many of Cadbury's products are halal certified. In , Cadbury partnered with local confectionery businessman Richard Hudson, who owned a chocolate, confectionery, biscuit factory on Castle Street.
Hudson's factory was rebranded as Cadbury Hudson and later became known as the Cadbury Confectionery. In , Cadbury established a tourist attraction on the premises of the Dunedin factory known as Cadbury World , which featured a large chocolate waterfall. In , Cadbury closed down its Auckland factory, leading to the loss of jobs. In , the Cadbury Dunedin factory attracted criticism from consumers and local environmentalists when it replaced cocoa butter with palm oil.
In response, the company backtracked but still retained palm oil as a filling some ingredients. Over the next several years, Cadbury began downsizing its products, including trimming chocolate blocks in This is estimated to lead to the loss of jobs. Amanda Banfield, Mondelez's vice-president for Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, clarified that the closure was done due to Mondelez's decision to shift chocolate manufacturing to Cadbury's Australian factories.
Following four weeks of consultations with local Cadbury employees, the Mayor of Dunedin Dave Cull , and local trade union representatives, Banfield confirmed that the closure would go ahead the following year due to the lack of viable options to continue production in New Zealand.
She also confirmed that Cadbury would offer a redundancy support package to staff and would also sponsor staff willing to move to Australia to work. Mondelez has also indicated that it is negotiating with two local chocolate companies to ensure the production of iconic local brands such as Pineapple Lumps, Jaffas, Chocolate Fish, Buzz Bars, and Pinky Bars in New Zealand. On 17 October , Cadbury announced that it would be shifting all production of its New Zealand brands to Australia after failing to find a local supplier.
The termination of New Zealand production will take effect in March Mondelez's New Zealand country head James Kane confirmed the shift on the grounds that the production of Cadbury products would require certain technologies, production processes and skills that local New Zealand manufacturers lacked. On 4 May, it was reported that the Dunedin Cadbury World would be closing down after the Ministry of Health purchased the entire former Cadbury factory site to make way for a new public hospital.
Mondelez area vice-president Banfield confirmed that Cadbury had sold the former factory site to the Ministry of Health for an undisclosed amount. Cadbury's Canadian head office is located in Toronto. Cadbury Canada produce and import several products that are sold under the Cadbury and Maynards labels, including the following:.
Cadbury Canada is now part of Mondelez Canada and products are featured on the Snackworks website. In , Cadbury India began its operations in India by importing chocolates. On 19 July , Cadbury was incorporated in India. The corporate head office is in Mumbai.
Cadbury to launch themed cafÃ© chain
The concept has been in preparation for 18 months. A range of gifts and merchandise, such as large jars of Roses, and a gift-wrap service will also feature in the store. This takes the concept of selling chocolate into the new millennium. Typhoo launched tea bar t-fresh at the Millennium Dome, but has yet to decide whether to roll it out nationally.
Cadbury Café set for nationwide expansion
Confectionery company Cadbury Trebor Bassett is set to expand its. Cadbury Cafe concept a year after opening its trial store in Bath. Learn about working at Cadbury Trebor Bassett. Join LinkedIn today for free.
CLIENT ROUNDUP: Cadbury Trebor Bassett set to expand Cadbury Cafe concept