The Casio FXG is a calculator which is widely known as being the world's first graphing calculator available to the public. It was introduced to the public and later manufactured between and c. The calculator offers 82 scientific functions and is capable of manual computation for basic arithmetic problems. The calculator can compute basic arithmetic functions with a precision up to 13 digits.

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This calculator is identical to the fxG in every respect apart from minor cosmetic differences. Both calculators have 82 scientific functions. From the image at the top, you can see the keyboard and the functions that are available, and the manual is the best place to learn more about them. One of the interesting features of this calculator was the ability to express multi-statement functions manually and in program mode.

This is where one may write multiple formulas or commands separated by colon symbols. This calculator comes from a very long line of graphing calculators going all the way back to the earlier series such as fxG, and fxG that had graphing capability.

The series was the most ground breaking in terms of technology, and this was because of the advances in low power memory IC by Sanyo. This was also one of the earliest graphing calculators on the market placing Casio firmly in the lead. The electronic engineering behind the and series was very similar, and the main calculator chip is almost identical based on CMOS technology.

The programming model is formula based with a mix of mnemonics for the conditional jumps and glyph symbols for variable assignment. The system architecture is Harvard based. The programming storage space consists of a maximum of steps, where each step occupies a byte of memory. The program area divides into ten sections P0 through P9. You could have ten independent programs in each storage space, or one main program with nine subroutines. The main program can then call these routines when required.

For its time, it had a powerful programming language as it could also manage array-type memories, and pointers. It is very easy to program this, as the language would be second nature to any programmer. Just for fun, I wrote a program for the delta-y transformation as this is something very easy to remember and it took just a few minutes. I made some games, learnt how the memory space was organised, and wrote a program for displaying the Mandelbrot set.

This is normally difficult to achieve in bytes, but after hacking its memory, I was able to use the variable register space as well. An interesting design feature was this physical power switch to control the power to the calculator.

This is why the batteries lasted as long as they did. On average, the three CR batteries lasted two years or hours depending upon usage of course. Overall, it is a nice toy to play with, and if you like vintage technology, you can pick one of these up cheaply from places such as eBay. The price of the fxGA is also around the same; however, it depends on the auction day and the number of collectors bidding.

I have always hated programmable calculators especially the ones that drew fancy graphs. I remember when I was in school, a rich kid brought one to class, and he was always showing off with it and fiddling with the buttons all day long. Of course, he had the entire brat pack of rich kids following him around. They were all middle-class, white, and into computers. They of course thought they were very superior destined for Cambridge, and I used to let them think so.

However, I had the ZX81 at home and was programming in Z80 assembly language, but I was not going to tell! I still remember my maths teacher in college advising us not to rely on graphics calculators too much. In Pure and Applied Mathematics, when you had to sketch a curve, the skill was in understanding the equation and being able to extract the necessary information such as points of intersection. Being able to understand where the curve intersected the x-axis and the y-axis, and finding the turning points provided a deeper insight into the equation.

Of course, these days you just enter the equation, and the calculator will plot it all for you and provide you with all the pertinent information. The average run of the mill student stopped using his brains two decades ago! The one thing the teacher forgot to mention was that if you were to use your brains, then over time you could solve these equations faster in your head, than it would take to program the calculator! Calculators Electronic Engineering Donate.

Author: Peter J.

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## Old Hardware Revisited - Casio fx-7000GA Graphing Calculator

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## calculator.org

Greetings all! I finally got my hands on it! The Casio fxGA calculator. OK, it is not the original fxG that launched the world of graphing calculators, but it is the second edition of it. The G was originally launched in

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## Casio fx-7000GA

The Kixmiller Pigeon. Who needs TI when you have Casio. Judging from the large screen, I already new that this calculator had graphing capabilities. I didn't know the historical significance that this piece of handheld electronic. The Casio fxG was the first widely used graphing calculators available for the public. It was introduced in , and sold until when more advanced calculators hit the market. This calculator also had a programming mode which had bytes of memory.

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## Casio fx-7000GA Handheld Electronic Calculator

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