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RLCS and Scopus. Abstract Introduction. This article analyses the influence of video games on the socialisation processes of Spanish teenagers, especially regarding the development of safety habits, time investment and preferences of use.
The study is based on a quantitative and descriptive approach and the use of a purpose-created item survey questionnaire that examines video games and media use and was applied to a sample of students aged 12 to Spanish teenagers are indifferent towards the adoption of safety habits when it comes to playing video games.
Discussion and conclusions. Motivation to play video games is higher in teenage boys than girls, which makes us wonder about the causes of these gender-related preferences in videogame use and the development of safety habits. Keywords Video games ; socialisation; teenagers; transmedia literacy. Contents : 1. Sampling and participants. Data collection instrument.
Data collection procedure. Data analysis. Correlation analysis. The transition from the information society to the knowledge society is being favoured by the accelerated technological development of mobile networks and devices, which has enabled the emergence of a new media ecology Scolari, , and new cultural forms of appropriation and media interaction.
The participation culture formulated by Jenkins increases as the development and hybridisation of new terminals, networks and media products empower teenagers and citizens with new ways to learn and re build popular culture. The emergence of Facebook , YouTube , Google Docs , iPhone and iPad , as well as the incorporation of new technologies such as cloud computing Amazon AWS, ; iCloud show an acceleration in the technologies that prompt those new cultural practices.
This new situation, typical of the 21st century, poses new challenges to researchers in the field of communication and education, since many of the skills that young people learn in their interacting with modern technologies are acquired in non-school contexts, either in cooperation with their peers or autonomously through the network.
These new scenarios in which boys and girls learn, create, communicate and play constitute a new paradigm regarding media literacy and education, which has an influence in the necessary conceptual review.
In our case, we will focus on studying the relationship of teenagers aged 12 to 15 with video games, based on the data obtained through a purpose-created questionnaire that investigates their preferences, use habits and dedication, electronic devices used to play, the comparison of videogame use and other media use and leisure. As Paul Gee points out, video games, as cultural and digital products, are systems that integrate narratives, solution of problems, motor functions, conception of leadership, among others, and in recent years have become a mass consumption item in all age groups of the population.
The economic indicators show us that the impact of the videogame industry increases year after year in our country and that it is in the top four in the USA. Within the audiovisual entertainment industries, the videogame industry occupies the first position, ahead of the cinema million euros , with an increase of 7. It is estimated that it involves 15 million video gamers, of which the age group constitutes the majority.
In terms of videogame types, the majority are physical, followed by online games and games in mobile apps, although these figures change continuously because, for example, online videogame consumption increased by These references contextualise the impact that, as media products, video games have among teenagers, as it is evident that video games are already, together with social networks, part of the daily tasks of teenagers.
However, there are also studies dealing with videogame as an object of study, that is, focused on understanding the videogame itself, how to play it and how to produce digital games Pousen and Gatzidis, The research study on video games, which had the participation of teenagers from Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid and Valencia, provides data that have allowed us to identify the skills and learnings that are linked to transmedia competencies related to content creation and management, the production of narratives and aesthetic criteria, competencies related to privacy and risk prevention, skills related to ideology and ethics, and performative skills, especially those connected with the game and ludic abilities.
This allows us to trace the relationships that are established at this age with video games, learnings and interactions with other gamers, which ultimately helps us identify key elements for proper transmedia literacy. Analyse the opinions of teenagers from the Autonomous Communities of Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid and Valencia regarding their dedication, preferences and safety habits in relation to videogame use.
Identify differences between the 3 dimensions that make up the transliteracy questionnaire and the independent variables: sex, age, city of residence, family type, extracurricular activities and types; as well as availability and uses of electronic devices such as computer, laptop, mobile phone, digital tablet, Wi-Fi connection, videogame console and handheld game console.
Observe the existence, or lack thereof, of correlations between the different dimensions of the questionnaire. Methods 3. A non-probabilistic convenience sampling procedure was used for this study Cuenca and Lozano, because the method used in the classroom, as well as the application of the questionnaire, could only be carried out with the groups of students to whom the team of researchers participating in this project had access during the academic year.
The sample consisted of a total of participants: 49 students from Andalusia, 57 from Catalonia, 39 from Galicia, 44 from the Valencian Community and 48 from Madrid. Regarding the relationship between the age and sex of participants, their age ranged from 12 to Moreover Another Finally, 2. The instrument used to carry out this study is a purpose-created Transliteracy Questionnaire , whose purpose is to collect the opinions of teenagers about the time they spend using the media, their tastes and preferences in relation to social networks and video games, as well as their safety habits in relation to the use of such resources.
To be precise, this study focuses on videogame use and, thus, on only a selection of 14 items of the questionnaire. The validation and reliability of the instrument have been measured and corroborated by different statistical analyses.
The result of the extraction of the main components reflects the existence of 3 factors, where the total variance explained is This analysis allows us to explain the correlations between a set of variables observed through a reduced set of factors Herrero, In this way, it is possible to check how each variable is related to its factor and whether factors are interrelated. Regarding its relevance in the theoretical construct, it was not a fundamental item either because the study focuses on video games not board games, so we decided to eliminate it.
Table 1: Rotated component matrix for exploratory factor analysis EFA. The questionnaire contained 13 items that were measured with a five-point Likert scale. Participants were asked to share their opinion regarding these aspects, focusing on videogame use. In addition, students were asked to respond direct questions about personal data sex, age, city of residence and family type , academic life extracurricular activities and types and availability and uses of devices PC, laptop, mobile phone, digital tablet, Wi-Fi connection, videogame console and portable videogame console.
The instrument was given to the selected students at the beginning of the dynamics based on the use of social networks and video games. The completion of the survey took 15 minutes. The researchers of the project were responsible for carrying out this method and collecting the data in all the selected autonomous communities. The analyses that we have carried out in this study to try to respond to the proposed objectives are the following:.
First, we performed a descriptive analysis of the 13 variables that made up the questionnaire through measures of central tendency mean and dispersion standard deviation.
Second, we carried out a descriptive analysis of the 3 dimensions of the questionnaire, calculating frequency distribution, and measurement of central tendency and dispersion. Third, we performed different analyses of variance to check whether there was a relationship between the dimensions of the questionnaire and the independent variables related to personal data sex, age, city of residence and family type ; academic information extracurricular activities and types ; and availability and use of devices PC, laptop, mobile phone, digital tablet, Wi-Fi, videogame console and handheld videogame console.
Fourth, we checked the relationship between the dimensions that made up the questionnaire through bivariate correlations. Finally, we performed multiple linear regressions to predict, first, the safety habits of Spanish teenagers based on time investment and preferences in relation to videogame use; and, second, to predict these indicators according to time spent in media consumption.
The descriptive results of the 13 items that make up the questionnaire used in this research to examine transmedia literacy through videogame use are presented in Table 2, which shows the means and standard deviations of these items:. Table 2: Frequency distribution of the questionnaire items on transmedia literacy through videogame use. The following section shows the results divided according to the 3 dimensions of the questionnaire.
In this sense, we present the descriptive data of each of the dimensions, as well as the existence of statistically significant differences, considering the independent variables of the study related to personal data, academic information, and availability and use of devices. Finally, the relationships between the dimensions of the questionnaire are presented, as well as the establishment of a predictive model for the safety habits of Spanish teenagers according to their dedication and preferences in relation to videogame use, as well as in terms of their dedication to media use.
In this dimension, we included the 3 items that alluded to the opinions of teenagers regarding media consumption. Specifically, it refers to the time spent in watching television, playing video games and participating in blogs, websites, online forums, etc. In this sense, the average media consumption ranges were higher in male students than in female students.
Regarding the performance of extracurricular and leisure activities, the same test indicated that there were no statistically significant differences. Focusing on the availability of devices, as well as on their regular use, the test indicated the following see tables 3 and 4 :. Table 3: Mean comparison for availability of devices in relation to media use dedication.
Table 4: Mean comparison for regular use of devices in relation to media use dedication. Higher average ranges in teenagers who regularly use a digital tablet compared to those who do not use it. Higher average ranges in teenagers who regularly use a portable console compared to those who do not. To determine the influence of age, city of residence, family type and extracurricular activities practiced by teenagers in their media use dedication, we carried out multiple mean comparisons through the analysis of the Kruskal-Wallis K test.
This dimension is composed of 7 items that investigate the opinions of teenagers in relation to their tastes and preferences in videogame use. Specifically, this dimension examines videogame use in online platforms and at home with friends, search for video games based on the viewing of a movie, viewing of tutorials to learn how to do things, viewing of gameplay videos of video games, and the production of fan-fictions and cosplay.
In this sense, teenage boys had higher average ranges than girls in terms of preferences in videogame use. Focusing on the availability and regular use of devices, the same test indicated the following see Tables 5 and 6 :. The average range was higher in teenagers residing in the Valencia Community, followed by those living in Catalonia, while the lowest values corresponded to those living in the Communities of Madrid and Andalusia, respectively. This dimension is composed of 3 items examining habits of teenagers in relation to videogame use.
Regarding to the performance of extracurricular and leisure activities, the same test indicated that there were no statistically significant differences either. Focusing on the availability of devices, as well as on their regular use, the aforementioned test indicated the following see tables 7 and 8 :. In this section, we address the correlation study among the 3 dimensions of the questionnaire. The data resulting from the application of the Spearmancorrelation test, performed to verify the relationship between the 3 dimensions of the scale are shown in the following table see Table 9.
The relationship between them is low, as pointed out by these authors. However, the adjusted value of R2 was. However, the adjusted value of R2 was , which indicates that only The analysis of the data provided by the 13 selected items of the Transliteracy Questionnaire , which collected the opinions of teenagers from Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid and Valencia on preferences, uses and habits in relation to video games, has allowed us to offer evidence in relation to the objectives established for this study.
However, this discrepancy is not appreciated when we compare the dedication of boys and girls to other activities such as sports and leisure. This allows us to conclude that the ways in which teenage boys and girls are involved in media consumption and youth culture are not affected in our country by elements such as geographical context or family models, although there are different ways of understanding it from a gender perspective Bertomeu, Independently of age, boys are more motivated to use video games of diverse types than girls, which makes us wonder about the causes of these type of preferences in relation to video games.
The increase in the number of female characters responds to the need to broaden the potential base of female consumers, but there is a lack of quality productions that offer characters like Lara Croft, which offer alternative female models that challenge traditional representations of women. Some of the interviewed teenage girls mentioned that they played video games during childhood but abandoned games and platforms in their preadolescence due to lack of interest. It is important to emphasise that the transmedia skills mentioned by participants include risk prevention and privacy protection, which implies a certain reflexive attitude on the part of teenagers when it comes to using the Internet, participating in online forums with strangers, as well as self-regulation of the time they spend in front of the screens.
In this sense, we emphasise that there is a greater concern about safety habits among teenagers from Catalonia and Madrid than among teenagers from Galicia and Andalusia, which leads us to think about the need to deepen the analysis of the data provided by interviewees to verify whether the influence of urban vs. What we can emphasise from the study is that there are relationships that link media use with the presence of habits as videogame players, which is logical if we take into account that teenagers are multipurpose media users, because their socialisation is linked to a dense media ecosystem, in which the presence of the smartphone stands out.
Aldas, J. Madrid: Paraninfo. Aparici, R.
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RLCS and Scopus. Abstract Introduction. This article analyses the influence of video games on the socialisation processes of Spanish teenagers, especially regarding the development of safety habits, time investment and preferences of use. The study is based on a quantitative and descriptive approach and the use of a purpose-created item survey questionnaire that examines video games and media use and was applied to a sample of students aged 12 to Spanish teenagers are indifferent towards the adoption of safety habits when it comes to playing video games. Discussion and conclusions. Motivation to play video games is higher in teenage boys than girls, which makes us wonder about the causes of these gender-related preferences in videogame use and the development of safety habits.
Case study : The European ECO Project
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