Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Other editions.
|Published (Last):||13 May 2016|
|PDF File Size:||5.19 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||11.62 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
The Fountainhead is a novel by Russian-American author Ayn Rand , her first major literary success. The novel's protagonist, Howard Roark, is an individualistic young architect who designs modernist buildings and refuses to compromise with an architectural establishment unwilling to accept innovation.
Roark embodies what Rand believed to be the ideal man, and his struggle reflects Rand's belief that individualism is superior to collectivism. Roark is opposed by what he calls "second-handers", who value conformity over independence and integrity.
These include Roark's former classmate, Peter Keating, who succeeds by following popular styles but turns to Roark for help with design problems. Ellsworth Toohey, a socialist architecture critic who uses his influence to promote his political and social agenda, tries to destroy Roark's career. Tabloid newspaper publisher Gail Wynand seeks to shape popular opinion; he befriends Roark, then betrays him when public opinion turns in a direction he cannot control.
The novel's most controversial character is Roark's lover, Dominique Francon. She believes that non-conformity has no chance of winning, so she alternates between helping Roark and working to undermine him. Feminist critics have condemned Roark and Dominique's first sexual encounter, accusing Rand of endorsing rape.
Twelve publishers rejected the manuscript before an editor at the Bobbs-Merrill Company risked his job to get it published. Contemporary reviewers' opinions were polarized. Some praised the novel as a powerful paean to individualism, while others thought it overlong and lacking sympathetic characters.
Initial sales were slow, but the book gained a following by word of mouth and became a bestseller. More than 6. The novel attracted a new following for Rand and has enjoyed a lasting influence, especially among architects, entrepreneurs , American conservatives and right-libertarians.
The novel has been adapted into other media several times. An illustrated version was syndicated in newspapers in Warner Bros. Critics panned the film, which did not recoup its budget; several directors and writers have considered developing a new film adaptation. In , Belgian theater director Ivo van Hove created a stage adaptation , which has received mostly positive reviews. In early , Howard Roark is expelled from the architecture department of the Stanton Institute of Technology because he will not adhere to the school's preference for historical convention in building design.
Cameron was once a renowned architect, but now gets few commissions. In the meantime, Roark's popular, but vacuous, fellow student and housemate Peter Keating whom Roark sometimes helped with projects graduates with high honors.
Keating ingratiates himself with Guy Francon and works to remove rivals among his coworkers. After Francon's partner, Lucius Heyer, suffers a fatal stroke brought on by Keating's antagonism, Francon chooses Keating to replace him.
Meanwhile, Roark and Cameron create inspired work, but struggle financially. After Cameron retires, Keating hires Roark, whom Francon soon fires for refusing to design a building in the classical style.
Roark works briefly at another firm, then opens his own office but has trouble finding clients and closes it down. He gets a job in a granite quarry owned by Francon. There he meets Francon's daughter Dominique, a columnist for The New York Banner , while she is staying at her family's estate nearby. They are immediately attracted to each other, leading to a rough sexual encounter that Dominique later calls a rape.
Dominique also returns to New York and learns Roark is an architect. She attacks his work in public, but visits him for secret sexual encounters. Ellsworth M. Toohey, who writes a popular architecture column in the Banner , is an outspoken socialist who shapes public opinion through his column and a circle of influential associates. Toohey sets out to destroy Roark through a smear campaign. Roark's unusual design includes a nude statue modeled on Dominique; Toohey persuades Stoddard to sue Roark for malpractice.
Toohey and several architects including Keating testify at the trial that Roark is incompetent as an architect due to his rejection of historical styles. Dominique speaks in Roark's defense, but he loses the case. Dominique decides that since she cannot have the world she wants, in which men like Roark are recognized for their greatness, she will live entirely in the world she has, which shuns Roark and praises Keating. She marries Keating and turns herself over to him, doing and saying whatever he wants, such as persuading potential clients to hire him instead of Roark.
To win Keating a prestigious commission offered by Gail Wynand, the owner and editor-in-chief of the Banner , Dominique agrees to sleep with Wynand.
Wynand is so strongly attracted to Dominique that he pays Keating to divorce her, after which Wynand and Dominique are married. Wanting to build a home for himself and his new wife, Wynand discovers that Roark designed every building he likes and so hires him. Roark and Wynand become close friends; Wynand is unaware of Roark's past relationship with Dominique. Washed up and out of the public eye, Keating pleads with Toohey to use his influence to get the commission for the much-sought-after Cortlandt housing project.
Keating knows his most successful projects were aided by Roark, so he asks for Roark's help in designing Cortlandt. Roark agrees in exchange for complete anonymity and Keating's promise that it will be built exactly as designed. After taking a long vacation with Wynand, Roark returns to find that Keating was not able to prevent major changes from being made in Cortlandt's construction.
Roark dynamites the project to prevent the subversion of his vision. Roark is arrested and his action is widely condemned, but Wynand decides to use his papers to defend his friend. This unpopular stance hurts the circulation of his newspapers, and Wynand's employees go on strike after Wynand dismisses Toohey for disobeying him and criticizing Roark.
Faced with the prospect of closing the paper, Wynand gives in and publishes a denunciation of Roark. At his trial, Roark makes a speech about the value of ego and integrity, and he is found not guilty.
Dominique leaves Wynand for Roark. Wynand, who has betrayed his own values by attacking Roark, finally grasps the nature of the power he thought he held. He shuts down the Banner and commissions a final building from Roark, a skyscraper that will serve as a monument to human achievement. Eighteen months later, the Wynand Building is under construction. Dominique, now Roark's wife, enters the site to meet him atop its steel framework.
Rand's stated goal in writing fiction was to portray her vision of an ideal man. Rand described the inspiration as limited to specific ideas he had about architecture and "the pattern of his career". In contrast to the individualistic Roark, Peter Keating is a conformist who bases his choices on what others want.
Introduced to the reader as Roark's classmate in architecture school, Keating does not really want to be an architect. He loves painting, but his mother steers him toward architecture instead. He becomes a social climber , focused on improving his career and social standing using a combination of personal manipulation and conformity to popular styles.
By middle age, Keating's career is in decline and he is unhappy with his path, but it is too late for him to change. Rand did not use a specific architect as a model for Keating. Rand asked this young woman to explain her goals in life. The woman's response was focused on social comparisons: the neighbor wanted her material possessions and social standing to equal or exceed those of other people. Rand created Keating as an archetype of this motivation, which she saw as the opposite of self-interest.
Only at the end of the novel does she accept that she can be happy and survive. The character has provoked varied reactions from commentators. Philosopher Chris Matthew Sciabarra called her "one of the more bizarre characters in the novel". Gail Wynand is a wealthy newspaper mogul who rose from a destitute childhood in the ghettoes of New York Hell's Kitchen to control much of the city's print media.
While Wynand shares many of the character qualities of Roark, his success is dependent upon his ability to pander to public opinion.
Rand presents this as a tragic flaw that eventually leads to his downfall. In her journals Rand described Wynand as "the man who could have been" a heroic individualist, contrasting him to Roark, "the man who can be and is".
Ellsworth Monkton Toohey is Roark's antagonist. He is Rand's personification of evil—the most active and self-aware villain in any of her novels. He styles himself as representative of the will of the masses, but his actual desire is for power over others.
She attended a New York lecture by Laski as part of gathering material for the novel, following which she changed the physical appearance of the character to be similar to that of Laski.
When Rand first arrived in New York as an immigrant from the Soviet Union in , she was greatly impressed by the Manhattan skyline's towering skyscrapers , which she saw as symbols of freedom, and resolved that she would write about them. DeMille when he asked her to write a script for what would become the film Skyscraper. The original story by Dudley Murphy was about two construction workers working on a skyscraper who are rivals for a woman's love.
Rand rewrote it, transforming the rivals into architects. One of them, Howard Kane, was an idealist dedicated to erecting the skyscraper despite enormous obstacles. The film would have ended with Kane standing atop the completed skyscraper.
DeMille rejected Rand's script, and the completed film followed Murphy's original idea. Rand's version contained elements she would use in The Fountainhead. In , Rand made notes for a proposed, but never written, novel titled The Little Street. That earlier novel was based in part on people and events familiar to Rand; the new novel, on the other hand, focused on the less-familiar world of architecture.
She therefore conducted extensive research that included reading many biographies and other books about architecture. Rand wanted to write a novel that was less overtly political than We the Living , to avoid being viewed as "a 'one-theme' author".
She edited the final manuscript to remove the quotes and other allusions to him. Rand's work on The Fountainhead was repeatedly interrupted. In , she took a break from it to write a novella called Anthem. She also completed a stage adaptation of We the Living that ran briefly in She first worked as a volunteer in Wendell Willkie 's presidential campaign, and then attempted to form a group for conservative intellectuals.
The Fountainhead is a American, black-and-white drama film from Warner Bros. The film is based on the bestselling novel of the same name by Ayn Rand , who also wrote the screenplay adaptation. Although Rand's screenplay was used with minimal alterations, she later criticized the film's editing, production design, and acting. The film's and novel's story are concerned with the life of Howard Roark, an individualistic young architect who chooses to struggle in obscurity rather than compromise his artistic and personal vision, following his battle to design what the public sees as modern architecture , which he believes is superior to other forms, despite resistance from a traditionally minded architectural establishment. Roark's complex relationships with the individuals who assist or hinder his progress, or both, allow the film to be both a romantic drama and a philosophical work. Roark represents Rand's embodiment of the human spirit, and his struggle represents the struggle between individualism and collectivism.
- EL POLIZON DE LA SANTA MARIA PDF
- CARIES ACTIVA E INACTIVA PDF
- DESCARGAR GRATIS LIBRO VERANEANDO EN ZAPALLAR PDF
- MANUAL DE SHARPDEVELOP PDF
- BANKERS BOOKS EVIDENCE ACT 1891 PDF
- ANNU PEYTHA MAZHAYIL PDF
- KX TSC11MXW PDF
- CONCURRENT AND REAL TIME PROGRAMMING IN JAVA ANDY WELLINGS PDF
- THE HAMPTONS DIET PDF