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Above all, however, they render it possible to address numerous research issues which have not been scrutinised or analysed to a sufficient extent before. Undoubtedly, the Second World War is the turning point in the history of such periodicals, since the sociocultural titles established in the post-war era reflected the new political, social and cultural situation in Poland1. Their editors took part in a forced dispute between the Catholic and Marxist camps, a dispute set against the background of post-war culture.

This period was exceptionally unfavourable as far as the relationships between the state and the Church were concerned2, and thus, some more radical titles were shut down, e. Tygodnik Warszawski in , while those which survived until were forced to make concessions3. In , virtually every prominent Catholic periodical was shut down. Chojnowski, M. Kula, Warsaw ; R. Sikorski, M. Wiszniewski, Z historii prasy katolickiej w Polsce. For decades, Tygodnik Powszechny has been the most eagerly researched Catholic periodical and the subject of numerous monographs5.

During its initial period of operation between and , literature and literary issues were among the most frequently scrutinised subjects. The circle of contributors to this Krakow-based weekly showed a keen interest in the debate on post-war realism in Polish literature and held a debate on Catholic literature. While this was a period when harsh censorship effectively limited access to foreign books and publications, journalists working for Tygodnik Powszechny strived to refer to the output of the most prominent foreign writers and to familiarise Polish readers with contemporary literary trends and debates by selecting the most valuable and recognised works.

More often than not, the interpretations of the most significant publications by foreign authors were substantially different from what the propaganda-based Marxist approach had to offer in such periodicals as. As a result, Tygodnik Powszechny encountered numerous accusations made by opposing journalists and was subject to countless censorship-related interventions7.

Graczyk, Cena przetrwania? The next one took place between and , when it was controlled by the PAX Association, supported by the Communist authorities. KUXshchev Thaw, during which the cult of personality was criticised, greater political liberties were offered, censorship became more relaxed, and some works by foreign and Polish authors in exile were published. At the same time, the idea of the socialist novel was gradually abandoned.

This study focuses on the contents of Tygodnik Powszechny, published between and until March , and does not include the period of when the weekly was taken over by the PAX Association Stowarzyszenie PAX. In effect, this was a brand new weekly, run under the same title and with the same layout and artwork in order to maintain the appearance that it would continue the initially applied programme policy.

What inspired this monograph was a desire to research the grounds on which particular literary issues and preferred authors were selected for scrutiny in Tygodnik Powszechny, and to analyse its ideological polemics in the first years after the war. Another purpose was to establish whether journalists writing for the periodical referred to the output of foreign authors, which names were quoted and which issues were perceived as meaningful and significant.

Habielski, D. Rafalska, Warsaw ; D. This work fills a gap in the realm of mass media and press studies, since a broader scope of research into these phenomena has never been exercised until now The materials analysed herein were not included in my previous treatise entitled Books Discussed in Catholic Sociocultural Periodicals in Poland between and In order to avoid any accusation of repetition, this monograph does not take into account any book reviews which were indexed on the CD accompanying the aforementioned treatise and discussed therein.

This book is interdisciplinary in its nature, since it focuses on issues related to press studies and literary science in the selected historical period. The applied research method was primarily based on the analytic approach to the content of various periodicals. However, the study was also supported by historical, biographical, comparative and descriptive analyses, combined with the analysis of literary texts.

The accumulated research material comprises press sources in the main. The author of this publication became familiar with all the issues of Tygodnik Powszechny within the aforementioned time frame, as well as other periodicals, as stipulated in Chapter 1 herein. For this purpose, the method of press content analysis was applied Since the methods she had mentioned only referred to cultural issues to a very limited extent e.

Similarly, her category key and quantitative key turned out to be of little use due to the very specific nature of sociocultural periodicals, which differ substantially from daily newspapers.

Following the research concept of press studies, literary press materials were categorised and analysed in accordance with the classification applied in literary science In her research the author also utilised the strategy of quantitative and qualitative analysis At the same time, the terminology of literary science was applied, e. In consequence, the materials accumulated and analysed in this monograph contributed to the development of the following structure. The purpose of the first chapter of this book is to familiarise the reader with the general position of sociocultural and literary periodicals in Poland between and The information included in this section of the book includes their genesis, printing and formal features, regular columns and rubrics, with their typology proposed on the basis of their attitude towards the contemporary totalitarian authorities Within the framework of the applied categorisation, two or three selected periodicals typical of each given group were briefly discussed.

Dziki, Warsztat dokumentacyjny prasoznawcy. Problemy teoretyczno-metodologiczne. Tradycje, stan, postulaty, Wroclaw Goban-Klas, Media i komunikowanie masowe. Teorie i analizy prasy, radia, telewizji i Internetu, Warsaw Studia i szkice, edited by E. Gondek, Katowice ; K. Since these periodicals have already been exposed to a profound and thorough analysis, they were discussed in general so as not to duplicate the information accessible in the literature on the subject.

The available bibliographical items referring to individual periodicals are specified in the footnotes. Apart from the description of printing and formal features, attention was also paid to the content of these weeklies and monthlies, changes in their editorial offices between and , and the visible influence of censorship upon texts which were authorised for publication.

For the purposes of description, the historic method proved to be a valuable tool, as it allowed for the presentation of these periodicals in an evolutionary context. The tightening of political strategy was particularly noticeable between and , which was deeply reflected in the content of magazines that were subject to political indoctrination.

Numerous literary periodicals were suspended at that time e. Tygodnik Warszawski in or merged together e. Odrodzenie and. Those which did not yield to the pressure exercised by state authorities as in the case of Tygodnik Powszechny eventually ceased to exist in The death of Joseph Stalin was another turning point.

The comparative method was used in the process of listing and categorising periodicals into the five-step typology. During analytic work attention was paid exclusively to the determination of a general attitude of other editorial offices to Tygodnik Powszechny.

The Cultural Press between and Another study that is worthy of note here is the well known work by. Jakubowska, Warsaw Szaruga, Co czytamy? The second chapter focuses on the weighty literary disputes held in Tygodnik Powszechny during the said period. The debate upon the shape and form of realism in post-war literature was joined by the most prominent journalists and historians of literature, e.

Here, the most daring and humorous statements were issued by Stefan. Although the representatives of the Catholic camp did not denigrate the social novel, which was held in high esteem by the opposing party, they postulated that an author of such a work should be allowed to refer to timeless values. It was argued that the realist writer always represents a certain world-view standpoint.

His role and vocation was also mused upon. Debates were triggered, somewhat in defiance of the propagated Marxist novel. References to works by foreign Catholic writers were made, with particular focus on their gloomy tone, which was attributed to post-war trauma. The last section of the second chapter focuses on the intense institutionalisation and gradual politicisation of literature.

The reports and commentaries again revealed a world-view clash between the two aforementioned camps. The significance of those events was discussed, with an explanation of the Catholic standpoint, and regrets were expressed that the debate had been dominated by ideological issues. Journalists also showed interest in other cultural and literary events, including literary awards which were granted at that time. In the third chapter attention is shifted to the dominating theme in articles written by the aforementioned authors and published in the weekly, namely the issue of English, French and Russian prose writers.

For the purposes of compiling this part of the book, a biographical approach was applied and the drafted list includes such widely recognised writers as Joseph Conrad, G. The fourth chapter contains an analysis of press materials related to the history of Polish literature. By means of quantitative and qualitative research methods, major articles on 19th century Polish prose writers were selected.

He was credited for his contributions to Polish literature in the difficult times of the third partition of Poland. Suggestions were made that he deserved an in-depth and exhaustive monograph, and 19th and 20th century reviews and essays on his works were published and discussed. Attempts were also made to prove the influence of Positivism upon his writings. Authors in Tygodnik Powszechny were also interested in the impact of his journalistic work on his prose.

Similarly, attention was paid to factors which shaped the ideological standpoint and the development of opinions represented by Eliza Orzeszkowa. Thus, this study finishes with a review of articles which referred to Polish drama. This book is an attempt to analyse and evaluate the part of opinion journalism in Tygodnik Powszechny which focused exclusively on literary issues. Nevertheless, the remaining content of the weekly still has a lot to offer to researchers, especially those interested in issues relating to culture, history, biography or geography.

A bibliography and an index of names can be found at the end of this study. Aimed at the intelligentsia, they usually constituted a small percentage of the global volume of press.

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