C is an open source, modern, flexible, versatile, and object-oriented programming language. This C tutorial is for beginners who want to learn C programming. This C tutorial is for students and beginners who want to learn C programming. Basic requirement to learn C is basic understanding of programming and some general concepts of object oriented programming.
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C is an open source, modern, flexible, versatile, and object-oriented programming language. This C tutorial is for beginners who want to learn C programming. This C tutorial is for students and beginners who want to learn C programming. Basic requirement to learn C is basic understanding of programming and some general concepts of object oriented programming. Introduction to C C is a simple, modern, and object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft.
C is an open source project managed by the. NET Foundation. C is a fully mature object-oriented programming language and allows developers to build cross-platform applications for Windows, Web, and mobile platforms.
C is a modern programming language. C can be used to develop all kind of applications including Windows client apps, components and libraries, services and APIs, Web applications, Mobile apps, cloud applications, and video games.
NET Framework and. NET Core. But with the rise of open source trends, Microsoft open sourced language compilers and. NET and the new. NET is called. Going forward, there is going to be only one version of.
NET, that will be. The next version of. NET is going to be released in , called. NET 5. The current version of Visual Studio is Visual Studio Visual Studio Community edition is a free. Alternatively, you may also use Visual Studio Code. Visual Studio Code is a free, lightweight, open source code editor for writing and debugging code.
VS Code supports major programming languages. You may download Visual Studio Community here. This is the simplest program you can write in C. Now, give your project a name by typing a name in the Name TextBox. I name my project, HelloCSharp. Click OK button to create the project. This action creates a console app. Double click on Program. Now type the following code. The action compiles and runs your code by creating a HelloCSharp.
As you can see in Figure 5, HelloCSharp. Types in C can be divided into two categories — built-in types and custom types. Built-in types are bool, byte, sbyte, char, decimal, double, float, int, uint, long, ulong, object, short, ushort, and string.
The following code in is example of how to declare variables, assign values to them, and use them. A value type variable contains the actual data within its own memory allocation. Value types derived from System. There are two categories of value types, structs and enum. A reference type is a reference to a memory location where the actual data is stored.
The main reference types are class, array, interface, delegate, and event. A null value is assigned to a reference type by default. A type assigned to a null value means the absence of an instance of that type. A struct type can declare constructors, constants, fields, methods, properties, indexers, operators, and nested types. The following code is an example of use of a struct Book uses a record for a book with four members, Title, Author, Price, and Year.
The Main program creates an object of Book struct, set its member values, and print the values. For example, to represent a week day, we know there are only seven days in a week.
Here are some common examples of struct types. A class is a logical unit of data. Classes have members such as properties, fields, methods, and events. The following code is a Person class with three private members, name, age, and sex. The class also has three public properties.
We will discuss private and public properties shortly. The following code snippet sets the values of Name, Age, and Sex properties of object p.
The following table describes class or struct member accessibility type and their scopes. Access Modifier Scope public The type or members can be accessed by the code in the same assembly or assemblies that reference it. A field can be public, private, protected, internal, or protected internal.
Fields in a class can have different accessibility levels. In the following code, fields name, age, and sex are private fields. That means they can only be accessed within the same class only. Public fields can be accessed from anywhere. Protected fields can be accessed within the Person class and any classes derived from it. This means the field can only be assigned in the declaration or in the constructor of the class.
If the field is not static, you have to access fields from the class instance. The code snippet in Listing 20 creates an instance of the Person class and sets the value of Year field.
A field can also be static. That means, the fields can be available to the code without creating an instance of a class. A static field is declared using the static keyword and a readonly field is declared using the readonly keyword. These both keywords can be combined to declare a readonly static field. The following code snippet declares a readonly static variable.
Constructors are methods with the same name as a class or struct and must be called to create an instance of a class or struct. The constructor is called using the new operator. A class or struct can have one or more than one constructor. A constructor does not have a return type. Property members expose private fields through special methods called accessor.
The get accessor is used to return the property value and the set accessor is used to assign a new value to the property. The private fields are exposed to the external programs through public properties, Name, Age, and Sex.
Once the properties are set, the actual values of the properties actually copied inside the object. The following code reads the properties values and prints them on the console.
A method signature is a combination of an access modifier followed by an additional modifier, return type, method name, and method parameters. A typical method signature looks like the following, where a public method returns a bool value and takes two parameters. Method can also take arguments and also return multiple values.
The method SayHello does not return a value. The final Person class looks like the following. The following code creates an instance of Person class, sets its Name property, and calls SayHello method. The passed data may be used for processing, business logic, and decision making. The last portion of a method signature is a list of method parameters that are passed by the caller program. A method defines the type and name of parameters.
Multiple parameters are separated by commas. Here is a method that takes three parameters and returns a value. This process is called method overloading. The following class RateCalculator declares a method CalculateCost with three different signatures. The following code calls these three difference overloaded methods.
CalculateCost The following code snippet is an example of two expressions. Typically, expressions are used in statements.
For example, the following code snippet is an example of a statement.
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C tutorial provides basic and advanced concepts of C. Our C tutorial is designed for beginners and professionals. Our C tutorial includes all topics of C such as first example, control statements, objects and classes, inheritance, constructor, destructor, this, static, sealed, polymorphism, abstraction, abstract class, interface, namespace, encapsulation, properties, indexer, arrays, strings, regex, exception handling, multithreading, File IO, Collections etc. C is pronounced as "C-Sharp".
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