ADENOMA PITUITARIO PDF

Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Pituitary adenomas are generally divided into three categories dependent upon their biological functioning: benign adenoma, invasive adenoma, and carcinomas. Most pituitary adenomas are microadenomas and have an estimated prevalence of Pituitary macroadenomas are the most common cause of hypopituitarism. While pituitary adenomas are common, affecting approximately one in 6 of the general population, clinically active pituitary adenomas that require surgical treatment are more rare, affecting approximately one in 1, of the general population.

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Although this distinction is largely arbitrary, it is commonly used and does highlight an important fact: small intrapituitary lesions microadenomas present differently and have different surgical and imaging challenges from larger lesions macroadenomas that extend into the suprasellar region. This article is a general overview. Pituitary adenomas are common, with rates varying widely depending on the definition: population prevalence is approximately 0.

Pituitary adenomas present either due to hormonal imbalance both microadenomas and macroadenomas or mass effect on adjacent structures macroadenomas , classically the optic chiasm. Rarely presentation can be catastrophic, due to pituitary apoplexy. Over half of all adenomas are secretory 2 , although even when this is the case this may not be the cause of presentation. A lack of libido or even galactorrhea may not lead to presentation and as such many secreting tumors are only diagnosed when mass effect occurs see below.

It is also important to note that larger tumors can lead to hormonal imbalance due to mass effect rather than secretion. Hypopituitarism or moderately elevated prolactin are both seen, the later due to so-called stalk effect; prolactin release unlike other pituitary hormones is tonically inhibited by prolactin inhibitory hormone PIH - a. Also important to remember that numerous drugs that are dopamine antagonists will also elevate prolactin - see elevated prolactin differential 9.

Most of the cases presenting due to mass effect are due to non-secreting macroadenomas 3 and the most common structure to be compressed by a macroadenoma is the optic chiasm. Uncommonly large tumors may result in hydrocephalus by compressing the midbrain or distorting the third ventricle , orbital or sinonasal symptoms. The most commonly employed approach to pituitary masses is transsphenoidal , whereby the floor of the pituitary fossa is accessed via the nasal cavity.

In large tumors, other approaches may be necessary e. Medical management of prolactinomas relies on administering a dopamine receptor agonist e. Although it can dramatically reduce the size of a macroadenoma, it has been associated with increased incidence of hemorrhage into the tumor 4. Growth hormone secreting tumors are usually surgically resected, however in recurrent cases or in patients who are not able to undergo surgery they can be treated with octreotide a long-acting somatostatin analog.

This can result in both reduction of the size of the tumor and reduction in the serum levels of growth hormone 4,5. Radiosurgery is also occasionally used. Less common complications include damage to the optic apparatus optic nerves , chiasm , optic tracts , cranial nerves and internal carotid arteries 7.

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As of the latest update, Google Chrome and Microsoft Edge have made a breaking change to how file uploads are handled. Once your system installs this update, you will not be able to upload new images. Please use another browser until we can get it fixed. Depending on their size they are broadly classified into: pituitary microadenoma : less than 10 mm in size pituitary macroadenoma : greater than 10 mm in size Although this distinction is largely arbitrary, it is commonly used and does highlight an important fact: small intrapituitary lesions microadenomas present differently and have different surgical and imaging challenges from larger lesions macroadenomas that extend into the suprasellar region.

On this page:. Article: Epidemiology Clinical presentation Radiographic features Treatment and prognosis Related articles References Images: Cases and figures Imaging differential diagnosis. Quiz questions. MR imaging of pituitary adenoma: CT, clinical, and surgical correlation. Edit article Share article View revision history Report problem with Article.

URL of Article. Article information. System: Central Nervous System. Tag: endocrine. Support Radiopaedia and see fewer ads. Cases and figures. Case 1: pituitary microdenoma Case 1: pituitary microdenoma.

Case 2: pituitary macroadenoma Case 2: pituitary macroadenoma. Imaging differential diagnosis. Pituitary fossa aneurysm Pituitary fossa aneurysm. Loading more images Close Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys. Loading Stack - 0 images remaining. By System:.

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Pituitary adenoma

Although this distinction is largely arbitrary, it is commonly used and does highlight an important fact: small intrapituitary lesions microadenomas present differently and have different surgical and imaging challenges from larger lesions macroadenomas that extend into the suprasellar region. This article is a general overview. Pituitary adenomas are common, with rates varying widely depending on the definition: population prevalence is approximately 0. Pituitary adenomas present either due to hormonal imbalance both microadenomas and macroadenomas or mass effect on adjacent structures macroadenomas , classically the optic chiasm. Rarely presentation can be catastrophic, due to pituitary apoplexy.

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Adenoma hipofisário

A pituitary tumor is a tumor that forms in the pituitary gland near the brain that can cause changes in hormone levels in the body. This illustration shows a smaller tumor microadenoma. Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths that develop in your pituitary gland. Some pituitary tumors result in too many of the hormones that regulate important functions of your body. Some pituitary tumors can cause your pituitary gland to produce lower levels of hormones. Most pituitary tumors are noncancerous benign growths adenomas. Adenomas remain in your pituitary gland or surrounding tissues and don't spread to other parts of your body.

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