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WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Food. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. One-hundred and ninety-six diverse forage and silage samples were gathered from Vietnam and New York State including: 40 C3 grasses, C4 grasses, 21 legumes and 13 silages. All rights reserved. E-mail addresses: kcm45 cornell. McRoberts , djc6 cornell. McRoberts, D.
Vietnam 3 Reed Canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea L. Mulato II Brachiaria ruziziensis x B. Vietnam 5 Maize Zea mays L. New York State 14 Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl. However, the initial investment in infrastructure can be cost prohibitive, especially for laboratories in developing countries and other low budget operations.
Pereira et al. Thomas Co. Samples 0. Results were not ash corrected, but were blank bag corrected using the overall blank bag correction factor for each technique. The overall blank bag correction factor BBC was the mean of individual blank bag correction factors for each technique. A standard Dactylis glomerata L. Sample processing order was completely randomized. A two-level stainless steel sandwich rack was used to process 48 bags per batch.
Mertens , were used to prepare 8 L batches. Two A units were used to facilitate parallel batch processing with WB. Each level tray was manufactured from heat resistant plastic. After adding ambient temperature NDS 2 L and alpha-amylase 4 mL , the bag suspender loaded with samples was submerged in the reservoir.
A weight was added to the top of the vertical stainless steel shaft to secure the unit and maintain rack submergence during the extraction, and the lid was sealed. Extraction time was 75 min. Units provided heat and constant vertical agitation by raising and lowering the rack in solution using a mechanical rotating disc.
After extraction, heat and agitation were turned off and solution was drained through an exhaust valve at the bottom of the reservoir. Heat and agitation were used during the rinse cycles, but the lid was not sealed. Following the rinse cycles, bags were removed from the tray, gently squeezed to remove excess water, and submerged in acetone in a glass beaker for 5 min. Bags were gently squeezed to remove excess acetone and placed on a glass tray to evaporate remaining acetone.
Forty-eight samples were loaded in a 2-level stainless steel sandwich rack Fig. The following materials were used to construct the rack: 1 Four sheets of stainless steel type welded wire cloth 0. The sheets were 4. The spacing between each wire strip was slightly greater than 5. Screws were inserted from below in each corner gap of one sheet of welded wire cloth from step A. Their combined thickness was approximately equal to the diameter of the wire strips material 5. Filter bags were oriented to face the center of the rack Fig.
The sheet rested on the large OD washers added in step B, and on the wire strips. The screw and rack were adjusted carefully and a hex nut material 4 was added to each screw joint and tightened to secure the lower level of the rack.
These washers provided additional spacing for a total of approximately 2. The second welded wire sheet prepared in step A was then added. Protruding wire ends on one side of the welded wire sheets were bent to accommodate a thermostat and thermometer in the water bath.
F Four pieces of heat tolerant nylon cord material 7 were attached to the corners and short side of the loaded rack using two zip ties at each attachment point.
Cord purpose was to provide manual rack agitation in the water bath. It required 2. The insulating lid was then removed, 8 mL alpha-amylase were added, and the rack was quickly inserted into solution by suspending and lowering it with the nylon cord. Approximately one minute of initial rocking agitation was provided. The four pieces of nylon cord were then passed through pre-made holes in the insulating lid, and the lid was quickly replaced.
Four weights were added to secure the lid and a thermometer was inserted through the lid to monitor temperature. During the extraction, samples were agitated in solution for one of every 5 min by manually rocking the rack from front-to-back and side-to-side through the insulating lid using the attached nylon cord.
The water bath was drained using a 2. Continuous rocking agitation was provided during rinse cycles. The rack unloading process required about 5 min per rack level. During WB development process, numerous iterations were tested with the standard D. Duplicate removal criteria Based on within-laboratory variability in a collaborative study, Mertens reported that aNDF analyses in beakers should be rerun if duplicate values differ by more than 2. Thus, n used in paired t test for mean differences was lower than post-duplicate removal n.
WB regression models for the whole dataset and individual sample classes. CIAT 20 0. All questionable individual duplicate values were removed. Total number of samples was not impacted, because for each case the remaining duplicate was used in lieu of the duplicate mean for analysis. Two- tailed t-tests were used to assess paired mean differences.
Consequently, pre- and post-removal data for duplicate differences were analyzed separately Table 2. Post-removal duplicate mean differences and standard deviations were lower than pre-removal levels.
Repeatability, a measure of within- laboratory analytical precision based on variation in results for the same material exposed to similar treatment e. Intercept was not different from zero and slope did not differ from unity Table 3. CIAT 1 0. CIAT sample grouped with the bulk of C3 grasses. Separate bivariate regression equations were generated by sample class to simplify interpretation of this interaction Table 3.
Slopes did not differ from unity except for C3 grasses and C4 grasses. The only intercept differing from zero was C3 grasses. CIAT sample, one O. CIAT sample, all O. Extreme out- liers included all Z. CIAT sample.
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