The rice moth Corcyra cephalonica is a moth of the family Pyralidae. This small moth can become a significant pest. Its caterpillars feed on dry plantstuffs such as seeds , including cereals e. Other recorded  foods are flour and dried fruits. Other scientific names , now invalid, for the rice moth are: . When describing his T.
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The rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton, an alternate host for the production of the parasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor Say, was reared on different diets, including pearl millet [ Pennisetum glaucum L. Moench] Poales: Poaceae , peanut Arachis hypogea L. Fabales: Fabaceae , and cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata L. The addition of cowpea or peanut to the pearl millet diet slightly increased C. Likewise, the addition of cowpea or peanut to cereal diets yielded a higher C.
Female moths emerging from larvae fed on cereal and legume mixed diets produced higher eggs compared to the ones fed on sole and mixed cereals. Further, individual C. With an initial 25 C. Niger is the third highest pearl millet [ Pennisetum glaucum L. Poaceae ] producing country; most farmers in Niger rely on its grain as their primary source of food [ Food and Agriculture Organization FAO ].
The biological control of the millet head miner was initiated in Baoua et al. The rice moth is one of the alternate hosts for mass production of egg and larval parasitoids of the hymenopteran families including Bethylidae, Braconidae, Platygastridae, and Trichogrammatidae Parra , Nathan et al.
To produce these parasitoids, C. The larger number and better quality of C. For the past 20 y, scientists in the Sahelian countries in West Africa have been using larvae of C. Based on the effectiveness of H. Corcyra cephalonica is mass cultured on a mixture of one-third of pearl millet flour and two-thirds of millet grains Bal et al. The parasitoids are released in small jute bags in millet fields Ba et al. Each bag contains 25 C. Subsequent generations of H. In Niger, pearl millet is grown during the rainy season from June to September and pearl millet panicles emerge in early August, which also coincides with the emergence of adults of H.
However, the parasitoid population would not survive a 9-mo long off-season when the host is in diapause Kabore et al. It is also difficult to operate a cooling system in the laboratory room because of erratic electric power supply and high cost in Niger. Hence the need to accelerate the current production process of C. Several studies have been conducted to standardize the C. Additional studies have been conducted to improve the nutritional quality of the alternate host for parasitoid production Hunter , Kumar and Shenhmar , Nathan et al.
To optimize the current technique for rearing C. Moench Poaceae ], peanut Arachis hypogea L. Fabaceae , and cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata L. Fabaceae ] as diet sources because these are locally grown and commonly available in Niger. Pearl millet was tested alone as well as mixed with sorghum, cowpea, and peanut in the first experiment and with different portions of cowpea in the second experiment.
Both C. Corcyra cephalonica larvae were reared on a mixture of pearl millet grains and flour diet using the Bal et al. Different larval feeding media were prepared with different combinations of pearl millet, sorghum, peanut, and cowpea grain and flour. Locally available varieties of these grains free of pesticides were purchased at harvest time from a trusted organic farmer in Maradi. Two sets of three experiments were conducted to evaluate different diets for production of C. The boxes were closed with muslin cloth and secured with rubber bands.
These boxes were kept on the laboratory bench at ambient temperature. In the first batch of boxes, C. The emerging moths were confined individually in egg laying boxes and number of laid eggs counted. The second batch of boxes was held for 2 mo to collect data on C.
From the third batch of boxes, 10 C. The host larvae and female parasitoids were kept in the Petri dishes for 48 h after that parasitoids were removed from the Petri dishes.
Two weeks later, the number of emerging H. The second experiment was set up based on the results of the first experiment. Here also, 25 freshly hatched C. The same sets of data were collected from this experiment as described in the first experiment.
A model was developed to project the C. The population growth rate was calculated based on the population increase in the first generation. This growth rate was used to project the population estimates of subsequent generations.
The survival rate is considered in order to take into consideration the larval death from limiting factors. The population growth rate of the first generation of C. The C. In fact, the number of H. The total diet needed for producing C.
Corcyra cephalonica larva developed in 28—30 d with significantly longer development time when cowpea or peanut flour were added to cereals diets Table 1. Similarly, the addition of cowpea or peanut flour to cereals diets yielded a higher larval survival Table 1. The females of C. Corcyra cephalonica developmental parameters when fed on diets of different proportions of pearl millet mixed with sorghum, cowpea, and peanut and the number of eggs produced by the female moth. In the second experiment, the C.
However, the larval survival did not differ between the diets Table 2. When given larvae of C. Corcyra cephalonica developmental parameters when fed on diets of different proportions of pearl millet and cowpea and the number of parasitoids produced by the host larva.
Starting with an initial number of 25 larvae of C. With this number of C. However, when considering total diet required for C. Larval population at second generation and projected numbers of C. Several studies were conducted with a combination of locally available diet ingredients in an effort to enhance production of C. The post-embryonic development ranged from 28 to 30 d. Other studies reported 35—40 d using diets including sorghum, pearl millet, rice, wheat, and groundnut Shazali , Prakash and Senthilkumar , Rajkumari et al.
The differences could be attributed to different experimental conditions i. Similar results were reported in other settings Osman , Chaudhuri and Senapati In our case, both cowpea and peanut gave similar results and we selected cowpea as the additive to pearl millet diet over peanut due to lower cost and availability.
The survival of C. Rajkumari et al. Mehendale et al. Individual C. In fact, the parasitoid H. This situation may be due to protein fortification as pearl millet contains only Scriber and Slansky and Ahmad et al.
Even though the larval population increases in second and third generations of C. The timely production of quantity and quality of alternate host larvae is necessary for the multiplication of parasitoids in the laboratory and for field release. It is critical to have a steady supply of C. In turn, the cooperatives need to multiply sufficient parasitoids by early August to meet the demands of the farmers for field release. The cooperatives should start rearing of C. The predicted number of H.
The head miner is the key constraint for pearl millet production in Niger. Augmentative biological control using the local larval parasitoid H.
Agency for International Development, under the terms of grant no. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U. Agency for International Development or the U. Ahmad , M. Mohiuddin , and S. Effect of protein enrichment of maize based diet on important biological parameters of rice meal moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton.
India 20 : — Amadou , L. Baoua , M. Haussmann , and M. Cahiers Agricult.
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Comparison of artificial diets for rearing Corcyra cephalonica Stainton, Lep. Correspondence to: Elizabeth B. The objective of this research was, based on biological studies, to determine and adequate diet for rearing Corcyra cephalonica Stainton, in the laboratory so as to permit the rearing of this factitious host for Trichogramma mass production. Six artificial diets were compared: a whole wheat flour All of the diets studied permitted the development of C. These diets reduced the total egg-adult cycle, shortened the egg laying period, and produced heavier adults. Studies on the fertility life tables showed that higher net reproduction rates Ro and finite ratio of increase l were obtained from adults reared on these diets.
The rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton, an alternate host for the production of the parasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor Say, was reared on different diets, including pearl millet [ Pennisetum glaucum L. Moench] Poales: Poaceae , peanut Arachis hypogea L. Fabales: Fabaceae , and cowpea [ Vigna unguiculata L. The addition of cowpea or peanut to the pearl millet diet slightly increased C.
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Allotey J; Azalekor W,