Identification of QTL associated with resistance to leafhopper species Empoasca fabae and Empoasca kraemeri in common bean. Empoasca species leafhoppers are a major insect pest of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris that cause significant economic losses in both tropical E. The objective of this study was to use Indel and single nucleotide polymorphism SNP marker Comparison of AC electronic monitoring and field data for estimating tolerance to Empoasca kraemeri Homoptera: Cicadellidae in common bean genotypes.
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Anal hook well-developed, but not extended more than half distance to ventral margin of genital capsule , rounded posteriorly with acuminate anteroventral projection, smooth , straight or nearly so. Anal tube ventromedial process absent. Subgenital plate not fused, plates free throughout length. Subgenital plate basolateral angle well developed, lamelliform. Subgenital plate basal, depressed section subequal to or longer than distal, compressed section.
Subgenital plate lateral margin straight or evenly convex in basal half. Subgenital plate mesal margin straight or slightly convex. Subgenital plate dorsomedial lobe absent. Subgenital plate group C macrochaetae with numerous macrochaetae, reaching apex of plate. Subgenital plate group C setae scattered basally, uniseriate apically.
Subgenital plate group A basal marginal setae well differentiated longer than group B setae but not greatly thickened. Subgenital plate group A with 5 or fewer setae.
Subgenital plate group B distal marginal setae well differentiated, continuous from near midlength to apex. Subgenital plate group D long, fine setae with numerous long, fine setae scattered throughout length of plate.
Subgenital plate dorsal margin of distal half in lateral view abruptly bent dorsad. Subgenital plate dorsomedial surface without conspicuous sensilla. Subgenital plate apex compressed. Subgenital plate length in ventral view distinctly longer than 2X maximum width. Connective free , well sclerotized , as long as or longer than wide, but not elongate. Connective lateral margin straight or evenly concave. Connective anterior margin straight or weakly concave, without median lobe.
Connective corsal keel present on midline posteriorly. Style apophysis section anterad of articulation to connective much longer than apodeme. Style preapical lobe absent. Style dentifer not abruptly narrower than basal section. Style distal teeth numerous, well distributed, not densely grouped at apex.
Style apex in ventral view curved laterad. Style preapical setae sparse. Styleapex tapered. Aedeagus preatrium longer than half height of genital capsule. Aedeagus dorsal apodeme very short or absent pair of weakly sclerotized dorsolateral arms may be present. Aedeagus postatrium absent, little if any development of atrial complex beyond base of shaft.
Aedeagus shaft shape in lateral view tapering distally - dorsal and ventral margins distinctly convergent through most of length. Aedeagus shaft basal half in crossection triangular, only anterodorsal margin compressed. Aedeagus shaftin caudoventral view tapering through most of length broadest in proximal half. Aedeagus atrium in caudoventral view not greatly expanded laterally, less than 2x average width of preatrium or shaft.
Aedeagus basal processes absent. Aedeagus distal paired processes absent. Aedeagus distal unpaired process absent. Aedeagus lateral flange absent. Aedeagus dorsal teeth absent. Aedeagus ventral surface smooth. Predominant color of dorsum pale green or yellow with few symmetrical cream-colored markings on head and thorax.
Brown or tan mottling absent. Anteclypeus concolorous with rest of face, not contrastingly dark. Face without paired dark dorsal spots , without median spot , without median dark brown or black longitudinal stripe. Frontotclypeus without orange ellipse.
Pronotum midline concolorous with rest of sclerite. Pronotum without dark band along posterior margin. Forewing inner apical cell unmarked. Forewing brachial cell without black spot distally. Forewing membrane without numerous irregular dark spots. Aedeagus preatrium in lateral view straight.
Segment X base with well-sclerotized dorsal arch. Style base linear or slightly sinuate, without distinct bend at point of articulation to subgenital plate.
Aedeagal shaft in lateral view not including processes curved dorsad. Aedeagal shaft weakly sclerotized or membranous posteroventrally. Segment X apex densely microtrichiate ventrally. Forewing costal vein concolorous with rest of wing. Mesosternum concolorous with rest of thoracic venter. Subgenital plate setal group A near base of plate. Male abdominal sternite VIII without conspicuous pair of lateral setae. Mesonotal triangles pale. Mesonotum without dark median spot. Base of pygofer without protuberance on anterolateral margin.
Posteromedial margin of eye extended to posterior margin of head. Hind tibia row AV with penultimate seta no longer than apical seta. Lorum conspicuous, delimited by suture. Front femur wihtout long, fine ventral setae in basal half. Subgenital plate group B apical setae no longer than more basal setae of group. Crown in dorsal view distinctly longer medially than next to eye. Crown distinctly shorter than width between eyes.
Head subequal to that of pronotum. Coronal suture extended well beyond crown midlength but not onto face. Lateral frontal sutures extended to or near ocelli, obsolete dorsomedially. Eyes in dorsal view narrower than distance between basomedial angles.
Face with maximum length Male anteclypeus flat or slightly convex. Rostrum not extended to hind coxae. Forewing venation with apical cells 2 and 3 both quadrate basally, veins RP and MA free, connected by crossvein. Forewing veins ScR and M free preapically. Forewing apical cell 4 distinctly tapered near base, MCu ending near posterior end of apical margin. Forewing vein MCu distinctly curved. Punctations along veins absent or indistinct. Hind wing CuA completely confluent with MP only one apical cell present.
Hind wing first apical cell more than 2X longer than wide. Hind wing base of first apical cell considerably distad of apex of CuP. Front femur row AV with 1 basal seta distinctly enlarged.
Front femur AM1 distinctly enlarged. Middle femur with 1 dorsoapical macrochaeta. Hind tibia row AV with 5 preapical macrochaetae. Second tergal structure if developed at all, with only a ventrally directed low wall, absent or less developed medially. Third tergal apodemes and perhaps fourth and beyond absent. Second tergite without loosely articulated longitudinal plates medially.
Posterior margin of 8th sternite truncate. Male Genitalia. Pygofer paired dorsolateral lobes present. Pygofer distal lobe partly separated from base by distinct dorsal membranous cleft. Pygofer distal lobe apex in lateral view broadly rounded.
Empoasca (Empoasca) kraemeri Ross & Moore, 1957
EPPO Global Database