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Alkyl polyglucoside vs. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Phase behavior, structural inversion and microemulsion solubilization potential for sertaconazole nitrate and adapalene were found to be highly dependent on the surfactants structure and HLB value. Further, monitored parameters were strongly affected by sertaconazole nitrate incorporation, while they remained almost unchanged in adapalene-loaded vehicles.

In addition, results of the in vivo skin performance study supported acceptable tolerability for all investigated formulations, suggesting selected microemulsions as promising carriers worth exploring further for effective skin delivery of model drugs. Kinetic study of the anaerobic biodegradation of alkyl polyglucosides and the influence of their structural parameters. This paper reports a study of the anaerobic biodegradation of non-ionic surfactants alkyl polyglucosides applying the method by measurement of the biogas production in digested sludge.

Three alkyl polyglucosides with different length alkyl chain and degree of polymerization of the glucose units were tested. The influence of their structural parameters was evaluated, and the characteristics parameters of the anaerobic biodegradation were determined. The alkyl polyglucoside having the shortest alkyl chain showed the fastest biodegradability and reached the higher percentage of final mineralization.

The anaerobic process was well adjusted to a pseudo first-order equation using the carbon produced as gas during the test; also, kinetics parameters and a global rate constant for all the involved metabolic process were determined.

This modeling is helpful to evaluate the biodegradation or the persistence of alkyl polyglucosides under anaerobic conditions in the environment and in the wastewater treatment. Profile of irritant patch testing with detergents: sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth sulfate and alkyl polyglucoside.

The cutaneous reaction to detergents follows distinct kinetic rules: the duration of application and the irritant concentration are of major importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in kinetics of skin reaction between the standard irritant sodium lauryl sulfate SLS , and 2 modern detergents: sodium laureth sulfate SLES and alkyl polyglucoside APG.

Evaluation was conducted by measurement of transepidermal water loss TEWL and laser Doppler flowmetry LD 24 h, 7 and 10 days after patch removal. Even at the highest concentration the skin reaction to APG was hard to detect. The irritation due to SLES was convincingly detectable only up to day 7, whereas the APG-tested skin areas showed no significant reaction even at day 3. These results demonstrate the improvement in reduction of skin irritation achieved by development of novel detergents.

Usnea barbata CO2-supercritical extract in alkyl polyglucoside -based emulsion system: contribution of Confocal Raman imaging to the formulation development of a natural product. Topical treatment of skin infections is often limited by drawbacks related to both antimicrobial agents and their vehicles. In addition, considering the growing promotion of natural therapeutic products, our objective was to develop and evaluate naturally-based emulsion system, as prospective topical formulation for skin infections-treatment.

Therefore, alkyl polyglucoside surfactants were used for stabilization of a vehicle serving as potential carrier for supercritical CO2-extract of Usnea barbata, lichen with well-documented antimicrobial activity, incorporated using two protocols and three concentrations.

Comprehensive physicochemical characterization suggested possible involvement of extract's particles in stabilization of the investigated system.

Raman spectral imaging served as the key method in disclosing extract's particles potential to participate in the microstructure of the tested emulsion system via three mechanisms: 1 particle-particle aggregation, 2 adsorption at the oil-water interface and 3 hydrophobic particle- surfactant interactions.

Stated extract-vehicle interaction proved to be correlated to the preparation procedure and extract concentration on one hand and to affect the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical features of investigated system, on the other hand.

An alkyl polyglucoside -mixed emulsifier as stabilizer of emulsion systems: the influence of colloidal structure on emulsions skin hydration potential. Additionally, the emulsion vehicles' skin hydration potential was tested in vivo, on human skin under occlusion.

Different emulsion samples exhibited different water distribution modes in the structure, reflecting their rheological behavior and also their skin hydration capacity. All rights reserved. Adsorption mechanism of alkyl polyglucoside APG on calcite nanoparticles in aqueous medium at varying pH. An initial surface charge influenced determination of a major driving force, which resulted in hydrogen bonds pH 7 and the hydrophobic interaction pH 10 as a main sources of adsorption of APG on the CCNP surface.

In conclusion, it was revealed that 0. Does lactobionic acid affect the colloidal structure and skin moisturizing potential of the alkyl polyglucoside -based emulsion systems? Moisturizing creams are the most prescribed products in dermatology, essential in maintaining healthy skin as well as in the topical treatment of some diseases.

The irritation potential of commonly used emulsifiers and moisturizing ingredients, but also their mutual interactions, could affect the functionality and safety of those dermopharmaceutics.

The aim of this study was to promote moisturizing alkyl polyglucoside APG -based emulsion as vehicle for lactobionic acid LA , advantageous representative of the alphahydroxyacids AHAs -multifunctional moisturizers, assessing the safety for use in vitro acute skin irritation test using cytotoxicity assay compared with in vivo data obtained using skin bioengineering methods and in vivo moisturizing capacity bioengineering of the skin. In order to investigate possible interactions between APG mild natural emulsifier-based emulsion and LA, a deeper insight into the colloidal structure of the placebo and the emulsion with LA was given using polarization and transmission electron microscopy, rheology, thermal and texture analysis.

However, it was revealed that LA strongly influenced the colloidal structure of the emulsion based on APGs and promoted the formation of lamellar structures which reflects onto the mode of water distribution within the cream. The advantageous skin hydrating potential of LA-containing emulsion vs. Safe and effective use on dry skin is presumed. Alp Rose stem cells, olive oil squalene and a natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier: Are they appropriate ingredients of skin moisturizers - in vivo efficacy on normal and sodium lauryl sulfate - irritated skin?.

Since skin moisturization may be achieved by both actives and chosen carrier, plant stem cells, squalene and natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier may be potential components of contemporary cosmetic products. With the employment of noninvasive skin biophysical measurements, skin hydration EC , transepi-dermal water loss TEWL , erythema index EI and viscoelas-ticity were measured on 76 healthy volunteers. In the first phase, skin irritation after a hour occlusion and the long-term efficacy of creams a day study on healthy skin were evaluated.

Phase II of the study focused on the cream efficacy assessment after a 6-day treatment of sodium lauryl sulfate-irritated skin. After a hour occlusion, there were no significant changes in the EI for any tested sample.

In the second phase of the study, the EI was not significantly altered for the cream containing squalene, while the application of all active samples resulted in a significant reduction of TEWL. In both phases of the study an EC increase was recorded, espe-cially for the squalene-containing cream. Due to the lack of skin irritation and skin barrier impairment along with the marked hydration effect, it could be said that the in-vestigated actives incorporated into alkyl polyglucoside emulsi-fier-stabilized creams may be safely applied as ingredients for "tailor-made" cosmetic moisturizers intended for normal and dry skin care, whereas olive oil squalene could be used for the treatment of irritated or sensitive skin as well.

Alp Rose stem cells, olive oil squalene and a natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier: Are they appropriate ingredients of skin moisturizers - in vivo efficacy on normal and sodium lauryl sulfate - irritated skin?

With the employment of noninvasive skin biophysical measurements, skin hydration EC, transepi-dermal water loss TEWL, erythema index EI and viscoelas-ticity were measured on 76 healthy volunteers. Effect of alkyl length of cationic surfactants on desorption of Cs from contaminated clay. In this study, desorption characteristics of Cs from clay according to the hydrophobic alkyl chain length of the cationic surfactant were investigated.

Alkyltrimethylammonium bromide was used as a cationic surfactant , and the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain of the cationic surfactant was varied from —octyl to —cetyl. The adsorbed amount of the cationic surfactant on montmorillonite increased with the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain, and intercalation of the cationic surfactant into the clay interlayer increased the interlayer distances.

Alkyl -imidazolium glycosides: non-ionic-cationic hybrid surfactants from renewable resources. A series of surfactants combining carbohydrate and imidazolium head groups were prepared and investigated on their assembly behavior. The presence of the imidazolium group dominated the interactions of the surfactants , leading to high CMCs and large molecular surface areas, reflected in curved rather than lamellar surfactant assemblies.

The carbohydrate, on the other hand, stabilized molecular assemblies slightly and reduced the surface tension of surfactant solutions considerably.

A comparative emulsion study discourages the use of pure alkyl imidazolium glycosides owing to reduced assembly stabilities compared with APGs.

However, the surfactants are believed to have potential as component in carbohydrate based surfactant mixtures. Experimental and QSAR study on the surface activities of alkyl imidazoline surfactants.

The correlation coefficient R was 0. Effects of gamma radiation from 60Co on dilute aqueous solutions of Linear Alkyl Sulfonate Surfactants and other organic pollutants. This study is the result of research findings and operational experiences gained by the author in over four years of work associated with the use of 60 Co for the treatment of waste-water. The effects of 60 Co are discussed with regard to radiochemical destruction of specific organic pollutant species.

The study deals specifically with the effects of gamma radiation from a 30, Ci 60 Co source upon aqueous solutions of Linear Alkyl Sulfonate Surfactants. The reason for the removal of Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate Surfactants was their extreme environmental stability and the associated appearance of foam in waste-water treatment plants and receiving streams.

Although the Linear Alkyl Sulfonate Surfactants are considered 'bio-degradable', the time required for 'bio-degradation' is impractical within the present environmental guidelines. This led to research into alternate techniques of treatment for the destruction of Linear Alkyl Sulfonate Surfactants. Consideration is also given to similar effects of gamma radiation upon pesticides and to the practical aspects of the use of gamma radiation for the treatment of waste-water.

Included are discussions of the general experimental procedures used, the sources and their calibration, and sampling techniques to ensure the accuracy of the data. Silica micro- and nanoparticles reduce the toxicity of surfactant solutions. In addition, the toxicity of an anionic surfactant solution ether carboxylic acid , a nonionic surfactant solution alkyl polyglucoside , and a binary mixture of these solutions all containing these silica particles was evaluated.

Furthermore, this work discusses the adsorption of surfactants onto particle surfaces and evaluates the effects of silica particles on the surface tension and critical micellar concentration CMC of these anionic and nonionic surfactants.

It was determined that silica particles can be considered as non-toxic and that silica particles reduce the toxicity of surfactant solutions. Nevertheless, the toxicity reduction depends on the ionic character of the surfactants. Differences can be explained by the different adsorption behavior of surfactants onto the particle surface, which is weaker for nonionic surfactants than for anionic surfactants.

Regarding the effects on surface tension, it was found that silica particles increased the surface activity of anionic surfactants and considerably reduced their CMC, whereas in the case of nonionic surfactants , the effects were reversed. This paper presents the synthesis and a study of the aggregation behavior of 4-undecylmethyl- and 4-undecenylmethylpyridinium iodide surfactants.

The effect of the position of the double bond in the alkyl chain of the surfactant on the critical micelle concentration cmc , degree of counterion.

Theoretical model to investigate the alkyl chain and anion dependent interactions of gemini surfactant with bovine serum albumin. Surfactants are used to prevent the irreversible aggregation of partially refolded proteins and they also assist in protein refolding. A series of gemini surfactant has been designed based on bis-N- alkyl nicotinate dianion via varying the alkyl group and anion.

On changing the alkyl group and anion of the surfactant , the value of Log P changes means polarity of surfactant can be tuned. Further, the virtual screening of the gemini surfactant has been carried out based on generic evolutionary method. Herein, thermodynamic data was studied to determine the potential of gemini surfactant as BSA stabilizer.

Computational tools help to find out the efficient gemini surfactant to stabilize the BSA rather than to use the surfactant randomly and directionless for the stabilization. It can be confirmed through the experimental techniques. Previously, researcher synthesized one of the designed and used gemini surfactant to stabilize the BSA and their interactions were confirmed through various techniques and computational docking.

But herein, the authors find the most competent gemini surfactant to stabilize BSA using computational tools on the basis of energy score. Different from the single chain surfactant , the gemini surfactants exhibit much stronger electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the protein and are thus effective at much lower concentrations. Based on the present study, it is expected that gemini surfactants may prove useful in the protein stabilization operations and may thus be effectively employed to circumvent the problem of misfolding and aggregation.

The impact of alkyl sulfate surfactant geometry and electrolyte on the co-adsorption of anionic surfactants with model perfumes at the air-solution interface. The impact of surfactant geometry and electrolyte on the co-adsorption of anionic surfactants and model perfumes at the air-solution interface has been studied by neutron reflectivity. The more hydrophobic perfume linalool, competes more favourably for the surface with sodium dodecylsulfate than was previously reported for the anionic surfactant , sodium dodecyl 6-benzenesulfonate.

Due to an increase in surface activity of the sodium dodecylsulfate, the addition of electrolyte results in a reduction in the linalool adsorption. Changing the alkyl chain length affects the relative adsorption of linalool and surfactant at the interface.

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