The introduction and subsequent extinction of the camel tick Hyalomma Euhyalomma dromedarii Acari, Ixodidae in Australia, with a review of the introduction of foreign ticks to Australia. Historically, several tick taxonomists have reported Hyalomma aegyptium within Australia due to misidentifications. This has resulted in confusion relating to the occurrence of the genus Hyalomma within Australia. Based on the recent discovery of museum specimens of Hyalomma dromedarii , misidentified as H. The introduction and naturalisation of foreign tick species into Australia is also reviewed.
|Published (Last):||10 October 2008|
|PDF File Size:||2.76 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||3.63 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
The introduction and subsequent extinction of the camel tick Hyalomma Euhyalomma dromedarii Acari, Ixodidae in Australia, with a review of the introduction of foreign ticks to Australia.
Historically, several tick taxonomists have reported Hyalomma aegyptium within Australia due to misidentifications. This has resulted in confusion relating to the occurrence of the genus Hyalomma within Australia. Based on the recent discovery of museum specimens of Hyalomma dromedarii , misidentified as H. The introduction and naturalisation of foreign tick species into Australia is also reviewed. Hyalomma ticks Acari: Ixodidae are hosts for Francisella -like endosymbionts FLE and may serve as vectors of zoonotic disease agents.
This study aimed to provide an initial characterization of the interaction between Hyalomma and FLE and to determine the prevalence of pathogenic Rickettsia in these ticks. Hyalomma marginatum , Hyalomma rufipes , Hyalomma dromedarii , Hyalomma aegyptium , and Hyalomma excavatum ticks, identified morphologically and molecularly, were collected from different hosts and locations representing the distribution of the genus Hyalomma in Israel, as well as from migratory birds.
A high prevalence of FLE was found in all Hyalomma species Contrary to FLE, the prevalence of Rickettsia ranged from 2. Using ompA gene sequences, most of the Rickettsia spp. Given their zoonotic importance, ticks were tested for Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection, and all were negative.
A further understanding of the possible influence of FLE on Hyalomma development, as well as on its infection with Rickettsia pathogens, may lead to novel ways to control tick-borne zoonoses. These findings imply that the interaction between FLE and Hyalomma is of an obligatory. Effects of tectonics and large scale climatic changes on the evolutionary history of Hyalomma ticks. Hyalomma Koch, are ixodid ticks that infest mammals, birds and reptiles, to which 27 recognized species occur across the Afrotropical, Palearctic and Oriental regions.
Despite their medical and veterinary importance, the evolutionary history of the group is enigmatic. To investigate various taxonomic hypotheses based on morphology, and also some of the mechanisms involved in the diversification of the genus, we sequenced and analysed data derived from two mtDNA fragments, three nuclear DNA genes and 47 morphological characters. Bayesian and Parsimony analyses based on the combined data characters for 84 taxa provided maximum resolution and strongly supported the monophyly of Hyalomma and the subgenus Euhyalomma Filippova, including H.
A predicted close evolutionary association was found between morphologically similar H. Congruent with morphological suggestions, H. Wide scale continental sampling revealed cryptic divergences within African H. The most basal lineages in Hyalomma represent taxa currently confined to Eurasia and molecular clock estimates suggest that members of the genus started to diverge approximately The early diversification event coincides well with the collision of the Indian and Eurasian Plates, an event that was also characterized by large scale faunal turnover in the region.
Using S. Generally, egg incubation, larval and nymphal premolting and female preoviposition and oviposition periods were prolonged with the decrease in temperature. However, the egg incubation and preoviposition periods were the most greatly affected. Larval, nymphal and fe Life cycle of tortoise tick Hyalomma aegyptium under laboratory conditions. The genus Hyalomma Koch, Reinstatement of Hyalomma Euhyalomma glabrum Delpy, Acari, Ixodidae as a valid species with a redescription of the adults, the first description of its immature stages and notes on its biology.
Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available For nearly 50 years the ixodid tick Hyalomma marginatum turanicum, reputedly introduced into South Africa on imported Persian sheep, has been considered identical to the Asian Hyalomma Euhyalomma marginatum turanicum Pomerantzev, Comparisons of this tick with the Asian H. It is hereby reinstated as Hyalomma Euhyalomma glabrum, and its adults are redescribed and its immature stages described for the first time.
The preferred hosts of its adults are large herbivores such as zebras, gems bok and eland, on which it occurs during summer. The preferred hosts of its immature stages are scrub hares and ground-frequenting birds, on which it is present during autumn and winter.
Data on its distribution and possible disease relationships are also provided. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a close relationship with clade III strains from West Africa, with an estimated divergence time of 50 years. Full Text Available Aim. Hyalomma marginatum is a two-host tick. In the region, H. The peculiarity of biological development of H. The dominant species are H. Ticks of the Hyalomma marginatum complex transported by migratory birds into Central Europe.
Taxonomy of the Hyalomma ssp. We would like to understand morphometric variation in the field collected H. Methods: A total field-collected tick specimens from different geographical regions in west of Iran includes Khuzestan and Lorestan Provinces were studied. Host preferences support the prominent role of Hyalomma ticks in the ecology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus CCHFV is a tick-borne zoonotic agent that is maintained in nature in an enzootic vertebrate-tick-vertebrate cycle.
Hyalomma genus ticks have been implicated as the main CCHFV vector and are key in maintaining silent endemic foci. To assess the significance of host preferences of ticks in CCHFV ecology, we performed comparative analyses of hosts exploited by species of ticks; these species represent 5 genera with reported geographical distribution over the range of CCHFV.
We found that the composition of vertebrate hosts on which Hyalomma spp. Immatures of the genus Hyalomma feed preferentially on species of the orders Rodentia, Lagomorpha, and the class Aves, while adults concentrate mainly on the family Bovidae. With the exception of Aves, these hosts include the majority of the vertebrates consistently reported to be viremic upon CCHFV infection.
While other tick genera also feed on these hosts, Hyalomma spp. Hyalomma spp. Indeed, removing the most prominent hosts quickly collapsed the network of parasitic interactions. Our data describe the association of vertebrate host preferences with the role of Hyalomma spp.
Hyalomma ticks on northward migrating birds in southern Spain: Implications for the risk of entry of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus to Great Britain. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus CCHFV is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, the immature stages of which may be carried by migratory birds.
In this study, a total of 12 Hyalomma ticks were recovered from five of migratory birds trapped in Spring, in southern Spain along the East Atlantic flyway.
While most birds had zero Hyalomma ticks, two individuals had four and five ticks each and the statistical distribution of Hyalomma tick counts per bird is over-dispersed compared to the Poisson distribution, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling studies to avoid underestimating the total number of ticks.
Rates of tick exchange on migratory birds during their northwards migration will affect the probability that a Hyalomma tick entering Great Britain is positive for CCHFV. Drawing on published data, evidence is presented that the latitude of a European country affects the probability of entry of Hyalomma ticks on wild birds. Further data on Hyalomma infestation rates and tick exchange rates are required along the East Atlantic flyway to further our understanding of the origin of Hyalomma ticks i.
Some hydrolase activities from the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch, Ixodoidea: Ixodida. Full Text Available In this work has been made a detection and preliminary characterization of some hydrolases in whole extracts from unfed adult males and females of Hyalomma lusitanicum, one of the vectors for Theileria annulata that causes Mediterranean theileriosis in cattle. We have elected as targets, proteases as enzymes implicated in the nutritional processes of ticks, esterases that are usually implicated in resistance to organophosphates and phosphatises often implicated in protein phosphorilation and control of ticks salivary gland.
The biological role and physiological significance are discussed in terms of the possibility of use these enzymes as possible in future anti-tick vaccination or acaricide resistance. The effect of temperature and relative humidity on survival of unfed hyalomma impeltatum acarina: ixodidae. Survival was significantly improved with rise in RH and fall in temperature in all stages.
The magnitude of the effect of RH and temperature on survival varied significantly between stages. Changes in RH and temperature had a stronger impact on surv A review of Hyalomma scupense Acari, Ixodidae in the Maghreb region: from biology to control. Full Text Available Hyalomma scupense syn. Hyalomma detritum is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region Africa.
This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis.
Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs.
Tick burdens can reach ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: i rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial.
It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. Co-distribution pattern of a haemogregarine Hemolivia mauritanica Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae and its vector Hyalomma aegyptium Metastigmata: Ixodidae.
Natural infection rates and transmission of Theileria annulata by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks in the Sudan. They were allowed to moult to adult ticks, which were assessed for Theileria infection in their salivary glands using Feulgen stain. At Eddamer, At Wad-Medani, 8. The prevalence of infection was higher in female than in male ticks at both localities.
When adult H. Hyalomma aegyptium as dominant tick in tortoises of the genus Testudo in Balkan countries, with notes on its host preferences. Sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes confirms synonymization of Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum and kozlovi, and advances phylogenetic hypotheses for the Ixodidae.
Phylogeny of hard ticks Ixodidae remains unresolved.
Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844
Q fever Coxiella burnetii is a worldwide zoonotic disease, and C. Ticks play an important role in the spread of C. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect Q fever C. A total of blood samples from camels and adult ticks were investigated for the infection with C.
We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. The Hyalommadromedarii central nervous system, the synganglion, is an integrated nerve mass concentrated around the esophagus and formed by fusion of a small anterodorsal supraesophageal part an a large posteroventral subesophageal part. The supraesophageal part consists of the protocerebrum including a pair of optic ganglia, a pair of cheliceral ganglia, a pair of pedipalpal ganglia, and the stomodeal pons.
Hyalomma dromedarii is a species of hard-bodied ticks belonging to the family Ixodidae. The dorsal shield conscutum of males can reach a length of 3. These hard-bodied ticks are broadly oval in shape. The basic color is yellow- to red-brown.
Share this article on [Facebook] [LinkedIn]. Article history: Received: , Accepted: , Published online: Background and Aim: Q fever Coxiella burnetii is a worldwide zoonotic disease, and C. Ticks play an important role in the spread of C. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect Q fever C. Materials and Methods: A total of blood samples from camels and adult ticks were investigated for the infection with C. The two tick species H.