Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart , a new edition is planned for Since the edition, more than nuclides have been discovered and about nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes.
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Obtaining nuclear data is an international activity with new and updated data constantly being determined by thousands of scientists at major research centres worldwide. Because of the large amounts of data generated and the formats used to store these data, the field of nuclear data is highly specialised. To make the most important key data more accessible to a wider audience, nuclide charts have been developed.
In this article, we present the scientific highlights of the new 10th Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart. The main focus of this Chart is to provide structured, accurate information on the half-lives and decay modes, as well as energies of the emitted radiation for over experimentally observed ground states and isomer nuclides to an interdisciplinary audience.
Variants of a given element differing in the number of neutrons are called isotopes, most of which are produced artificially and are unstable radioisotopes. The study of isotope properties, synthesis, and decay modes has been instrumental for rationalizing phenomena, providing a basis for our understanding of the Universe, and resulted in a plethora of applications with deep societal and economic impact.
It is thanks to our understanding of isotopes that we can power spacecraft for exploring the cosmos, elaborate sophisticated climate change models, deploy accurate environmental control systems, apply powerful diagnostic and therapeutic tools for fighting diseases, etc.
The new 10th Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains nuclear data on experimentally observed nuclide ground states and isomers. Since the previous edition, IUPAC has agreed on names for the elements , , , and nihonium, symbol Nh, moscovium Mc, tennessine Ts and oganesson Og, respectively.
In addition to half-lives, decay modes, and energies of the emitted radiations, most recent data on atomic weights, isotopic abundancies, cross sections and thermal fission yields for U and Pu are given. Together with a fold-out nuclide chart, a 72 page booklet gives additional information on important physical constants, properties of the chemical elements and more than 80 so-called reduced decay schemes to assist in the understanding of the nuclide box contents.
In the following sections, these features are described in more detail. In contrast to the periodic table, a nuclide chart is based on the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom.
A nuclide chart is a two dimensional representation of the nuclear and radioactive properties of all known atoms. A nuclide is the generic name for atoms characterized by the constituent protons and neutrons. In contrast to the periodic table which is based on chemical behaviour, the nuclide chart arranges nuclides according to the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
Each nuclide in the chart is represented by a box containing the element symbol and mass number, natural abundance, half-life, decay types and decay energies.
The nuclide boxes are coloured according to their decay properties. Nuclear isomers, or excited states, can be represented by sub-dividing the box accordingly. The Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart is shown schematically in Figure 1.
The horizontal axis corresponds to the neutron number N and the vertical axis to the proton number Z in the atomic nucleus.
Each horizontal line of nuclide boxes constant Z, variable N corresponds to the isotopes of a chemical element. With coordinates N, Z the coloured nuclide box shows data for experimentally observed nuclides with N neutrons and Z protons in the nucleus. Data in an undivided box, as shown in Figure 1 , corresponds to the ground state of the nuclide.
If a box is divided into two or three sections Fig. Usually, all known isomers are shown in the chart. In some cases, isomers with sub-second half-lives are shown if they are deemed to be important. Stable nuclides are shown in black, unstable with colours representing the decay modes.
As can be seen in Figure 1 , the stable nuclides black boxes are located in the centre of the nuclide chart. At higher mass numbers, because of the coulomb force of positively charged protons, a higher neutron number per proton is necessary for stability.
The colour coding used in the nuclide boxes indicates the decay modes. Yellow is for alpha decay Fig. In addition, light blue is used for neutron decay, light brown for proton decay, green for spontaneous fission, violet for cluster decay or cluster emission and white for isomeric transition.
Multiple decay modes for a single nuclide are represented by differently sized triangles. Primordial nuclides are those which were created during the formation of terrestrial matter and are still present on Earth because of their very long half-lives.
In the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart, such nuclides have both an isotopic abundance and an experimentally observed half-life. In the Chart they are indicated in the black upper section of the nuclide box containing information on the atomic abundance.
The lower section of the nuclide box indicates the decay mode and the half-life Fig. Yuri Oganessian, a pioneer in the field. The new element names are shown in the 10th edition of the Chart Fig. New symbols for chemical elements in the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart. Symbol Nh in line , Mc in , Ts in and Og in The update procedure is described in detail in Section 3.
In Figure 3 , the highlighted coloured boxes represent new and updated nuclides in the edition. As can be seen, many of the updated nuclides lie on an inclined line indicating that they were updated using new mass evaluations from the Nuclear Data Sheets each new mass evaluation gives rise to a line in the figure.
The coloured boxes indicate new and updated nuclides in the 10th edition. Due to the limited space available in each nuclide box, only the most important or key nuclear data can be inserted. There are also a number of rules which determine exactly how this data is inserted. It is important to know how the inserted data should be interpreted. For this reason, so-called reduced decay schemes have been developed for many nuclides to help in the understanding of the condensed form used in the nuclide boxes.
In the booklet accompanying the Chart, more than 80 such decay schemes have been included. In this section, an example of a nuclide box and accompanying reduced decay scheme as shown in Figures 4a and 4b for Cs is described in detail.
Transitions which are not indicated in the nuclide box, but which have been added to improve understanding, are shown as dotted lines.
The corresponding data is shown in grey. Radiation energies followed by dots in the nuclide box indicating a low emission probability are shown in the decay scheme with dotted lines. In Figures 4a and 4b it can be seen that Cs has a ground state with a half-life of 2.
The dots following the beta particle endpoint energy 0. The beta transitions are shown in more detail in the reduced decay scheme in Figure 4b. In the nuclide box, only the beta emission with highest emission probability is shown 0. This value has been rounded as can be seen from Figure 4b. As can be seen from the decay scheme, the 0. Additional gamma emissions shown in the decay scheme are indicated by dots in the nuclide box i.
The last row in the box, i. The metastable state Cs m, with half-life 2. This is shown in more detail in the reduced decay scheme in Figure 4b. Updating the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart for a new edition is a continuous process based on the following main tasks: information and decay data on recently discovered nuclides is obtained from original scientific papers;. Information on recently discovered nuclides is found through periodic evaluations of original papers published in scientific journals.
Since the 7th edition from , more than new ground state and isomer nuclides have been identified and added to the Chart. In each article one or more mass evaluations are presented. This evaluated decay data is then used to update the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart using the values for the half-life, branching ratios, particle and photon emission energies and probabilities.
If a nuclide in the evaluated mass chain has a daughter product with a different mass number resulting, for example, from the emission of alpha, proton, neutron, etc. Alternatively, it may contain information on new evaluations which are not yet published. The branching ratios for decay modes are important since they determine the use of small or large triangles in the nuclide boxes see the inset in Fig.
Data on the branching ratios are given in NDS. In the reduced decay scheme diagrams given in the booklet, data on Q-values and energy levels are shown.
In cases where the data may be incomplete, the Nuclear Science References [ 6 ] are consulted to find the original literature. Although references for individual nuclides are not given in the printed versions, they are available in the online version Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart Online. An example of such a reference for an individual nuclide is shown in Figure 5 for Am The most recent evaluation of mass number was in NDS Vol.
There the half-life of Am was updated but not the decay and radiation data since this latter data is associated with the daughter products. This is the reason why two references are given in Figure 5.
For more recent references, a hyperlink to the journal is given as shown. The Q-value was checked as described above. Following the introduction of this procedure in , around ground and isomeric states have been referenced in this manner.
References for decay data for individual nuclides are available in the online version of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart. The isotopic abundance of an isotope refers to the relative proportion of that isotope to the stable or primordial isotopes of that element in terrestrial matter. In the difference chart Fig. The isotopic abundances were taken from the most recent evaluations i.
The element oxygen O has 15 isotopes in the 10th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart. In the above figure, 9 of these isotopes are shown. The three stable isotopes: O 16, O 17 and O 18 are shown in black. The natural isotopic abundances are respectively: If two values are given, the first refers to the formation of the product nucleus in the metastable, the second to the formation in ground state.
Each horizontal line with constant Z, variable N in the two-dimensional nuclide chart contains the isotopes of a particular chemical element Fig.
In each horizontal line, the proton number is fixed and only the neutron number varies. At the start of each line, the white box represents the element. Excerpt from the 10th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart.
The three horizontal lines show isotopes of elements H, He and Li.
Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart
Obtaining nuclear data is an international activity with new and updated data constantly being determined by thousands of scientists at major research centres worldwide. Because of the large amounts of data generated and the formats used to store these data, the field of nuclear data is highly specialised. To make the most important key data more accessible to a wider audience, nuclide charts have been developed. In this article, we present the scientific highlights of the new 10th Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart. The main focus of this Chart is to provide structured, accurate information on the half-lives and decay modes, as well as energies of the emitted radiation for over experimentally observed ground states and isomer nuclides to an interdisciplinary audience.
Buy nuclides charts online
The Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart is a widespread table of nuclides in print. Each nuclide is represented at the intersection of its respective neutron and proton number by a small square box with the chemical symbol and the nucleon number A. By columnar subdivision of such a field, in addition to ground states also nuclear isomers can be shown. For each radionuclide its field includes if known information about its half-life and essential energies of the emitted radiation, for stable nuclides and primordial radionuclides there are data on mole fraction abundances in the natural isotope mixture of the corresponding chemical element. For the chemical elements cross sections and standard atomic weights both averaged over natural isotopic composition are specified the relative atomic masses partially as an interval to reflect the variability of the composition of the element's natural isotope mixture. For the nuclear fission of U and Pu with thermal neutrons, percentage isobaric chain yields of fission products are listed.