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Raynaud syndrome , also known as Raynaud's phenomenon , is a medical condition in which spasm of arteries cause episodes of reduced blood flow. Episodes are often triggered by cold or emotional stress.
Secondary Raynaud's occurs as a result of another condition. The primary treatment is avoiding the cold. When exposed to cold temperatures, the blood supply to the fingers or toes, and in some cases the nose or earlobes, is markedly reduced; the skin turns pale or white called pallor and becomes cold and numb. These events are episodic, and when the episode subsides or the area is warmed, the blood flow returns, and the skin color first turns red rubor , and then back to normal, often accompanied by swelling , tingling, and a painful "pins and needles" sensation.
All three color changes are observed in classic Raynaud's. However, not all patients see all of the aforementioned color changes in all episodes, especially in milder cases of the condition.
The red flush is due to reactive hyperemia of the areas deprived of blood flow. In pregnancy , this sign normally disappears due to increased surface blood flow.
Raynaud's has occurred in breastfeeding mothers, causing nipples to turn white and painful. Raynaud's disease, or primary Raynaud's, is diagnosed if the symptoms are idiopathic , that is, if they occur by themselves and not in association with other diseases.
Some refer to primary Raynaud's disease as "being allergic to coldness". It often develops in young women in their teens and early adulthood. Primary Raynaud's is thought to be at least partly hereditary , although specific genes have not yet been identified. Smoking increases frequency and intensity of attacks, and a hormonal component exists. Caffeine , estrogen, and nonselective beta-blockers are often listed as aggravating factors, but evidence that they should be avoided is not solid.
Raynaud's phenomenon, or secondary Raynaud's, occurs secondary to a wide variety of other conditions. Raynaud's can precede these other diseases by many years, making it the first presenting symptom. Patients with secondary Raynaud's can also have symptoms related to their underlying diseases. When Raynaud's phenomenon is limited to one hand or one foot, it is referred to as unilateral Raynaud's.
This is an uncommon form, and it is always secondary to local or regional vascular disease. It commonly progresses within several years to affect other limbs as the vascular disease progresses. Its pathophysiology includes hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system causing extreme vasoconstriction of the peripheral blood vessels, leading to tissue hypoxia.
Distinguishing Raynaud's disease primary Raynaud's from phenomenon secondary Raynaud's is important. Looking for signs of arthritis or vasculitis , as well as a number of laboratory tests, may separate them.
If suspected to be secondary to systemic sclerosis , one tool which may help aid in the prediction of systemic sclerosis is thermography. To aid in the diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon, multiple sets of diagnostic criteria have been proposed. Recently, International Consensus Criteria were developed for the diagnosis of primary Raynaud's phenomenon by a panel of experts in the fields of rheumatology and dermatology. Secondary Raynaud's is managed primarily by treating the underlying cause, and as primary Raynaud's, avoiding triggers, such as cold, emotional and environmental stress, vibrations and repetitive motions, and avoiding smoking including passive smoking and sympathomimetic drugs.
Evidence does not support the use of alternative medicine, including acupuncture and laser therapy. The prognosis of primary Raynaud syndrome is often very favorable, with no mortality and little morbidity.
However, a minority develops gangrene. The prognosis of secondary Raynaud is dependent on the underlying disease, and how effective blood flow-restoring maneuvers are. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Medical condition in which spasm of arteries cause episodes of reduced blood flow. Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 1 October Archived from the original on 5 October The New England Journal of Medicine. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 24 April Journal des Maladies Vasculaires in French. New England Journal of Medicine. Joint, Bone, Spine. Archived from the original on 12 December Retrieved 13 December Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.
La Revue du Praticien in French. British Journal of Rheumatology. Raynaud's phenomenon". Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. Journal of Rheumatology. Journal of Autoimmunity. London: Manson Publishing. The American Journal of Cardiology. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Journal of Internal Medicine. December Arthritis and Rheumatism. Elsevier Saunergic blockers such as prazosin can be used to control Raynaud's vasospasms under supervision of a health care provider. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors e. October The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences.
July Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. ICD - 10 : I Cardiovascular disease vessels I70—I99 , — Arteritis Aortitis Buerger's disease. Carotid artery stenosis Renal artery stenosis.
Aortoiliac occlusive disease Degos disease Erythromelalgia Fibromuscular dysplasia Raynaud's phenomenon. Arteriovenous fistula Arteriovenous malformation Telangiectasia Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Cherry hemangioma Halo nevus Spider angioma. Chronic venous insufficiency Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency Superior vena cava syndrome Inferior vena cava syndrome Venous ulcer.
Hypertensive heart disease Hypertensive emergency Hypertensive nephropathy Essential hypertension Secondary hypertension Renovascular hypertension Benign hypertension Pulmonary hypertension Systolic hypertension White coat hypertension. Orthostatic hypotension. Categories : Diseases of arteries, arterioles and capillaries Autoimmune diseases Rheumatology Syndromes Vascular-related cutaneous conditions. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
Avoiding cold, calcium channel blockers , iloprost . Wikimedia Commons has media related to Raynaud's phenomenon. Inflammation Arteritis Aortitis Buerger's disease. Inflammation Phlebitis. Hypertension Hypertensive heart disease Hypertensive emergency Hypertensive nephropathy Essential hypertension Secondary hypertension Renovascular hypertension Benign hypertension Pulmonary hypertension Systolic hypertension White coat hypertension.
2010, Número 595
Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the blood vessels to narrow when you are cold or feeling stressed. When this happens, blood can't get to the surface of the skin and the affected areas turn white and blue. When the blood flow returns, the skin turns red and throbs or tingles. In severe cases, loss of blood flow can cause sores or tissue death.
Raynaud's ray-NOHZ disease causes some areas of your body — such as your fingers and toes — to feel numb and cold in response to cold temperatures or stress. In Raynaud's disease, smaller arteries that supply blood to your skin narrow, limiting blood circulation to affected areas vasospasm. Women are more likely than men to have Raynaud's disease, also known as Raynaud or Raynaud's phenomenon or syndrome. It appears to be more common in people who live in colder climates. Treatment of Raynaud's disease depends on its severity and whether you have other health conditions. For most people, Raynaud's disease isn't disabling, but it can affect your quality of life.
Raynaud syndrome , also known as Raynaud's phenomenon , is a medical condition in which spasm of arteries cause episodes of reduced blood flow. Episodes are often triggered by cold or emotional stress. Secondary Raynaud's occurs as a result of another condition. The primary treatment is avoiding the cold. When exposed to cold temperatures, the blood supply to the fingers or toes, and in some cases the nose or earlobes, is markedly reduced; the skin turns pale or white called pallor and becomes cold and numb. These events are episodic, and when the episode subsides or the area is warmed, the blood flow returns, and the skin color first turns red rubor , and then back to normal, often accompanied by swelling , tingling, and a painful "pins and needles" sensation. All three color changes are observed in classic Raynaud's.