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Acid-base balance disorders can be found in a primary or secondary form in patients with a disease process such as Diabetes Mellitus or acute renal failure, among others. The objective of this article is to explain and guide the correlationship between the clinical findings in the patient and the parameters of arterial blood gases in a simple and precise manner, in order to make the correct acid-base balance diagnosis and adequate therapeutic interventions.
The conclusion was that base excess or deficit in arterial blood gases is a useful tool which along with the clinical history, pH, and partial pressure of CO2, provides an accurate estimate of the metabolic component of the acid-base balance. Derksen et al. Antecedente de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en tratamiento con metformina. Story DA. Bench-to-bedside review: a brief history of clinical acid-base.
Crit Care. Acid-base analysis: a critique of the Stewart and bicarbonate-centered approaches. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. Corey HE. Stewart and beyond: new models of acid-base balance. Kidney Int. Essentials in the diagnosis of acid-base disorders and their high altitude application.
J Physiol Pharmacol. Alteraciones del equilibrio acido-base. Dial Traspl. Durward A, Murdoch I. Understanding acid-base balance. Paediatr Child Health. Edwards SL. Pathophysiology of acid base balance: the theory practice relationship. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. A balanced view of balanced solutions. Boron WF. Acid-base transport by the renal proximal tubule. Physiological carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and pH sensing.
Pflugers Arch. Koeppen BM. The kidney and acid-base regulation. Adv Physiol Educ. Greenbaum J, Nirmalan M. Acid-base balance: the traditional approach. Curr Anaesth Crit Care. Acid-base balance revisited: Stewart and strong ions. Semin Anesth. Acid-base balance: Stewart's physicochemical approach. Approach to metabolic acidosis in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin N Am. Impact of the diet on net endogenous acid production and acid-base balance.
Clin Nutr. Moe OW, Fuster D. Clinical acid-base pathophysiology: disorders of plasma anion gap. Impact of chloride balance in acidosis control: the Stewart approach in hemodialysis critically ill patients. J Crit Care. Quantitative acid-base physiology using the Stewart model.
Does it improve our understanding of what is really wrong? Eur J Intern Med. Wooten EW. Science review: quantitative acid-base physiology using the Stewart model.
Strong ion difference and strong anion gap: the Stewart approach to acid base disturbances. Maciel AT, Park M. Differences in acid-base behavior between intensive care unit survivors and nonsurvivors using both a physicochemical and a standard base excess approach: a prospective, observational study. Rastegar A. Clinical utility of Stewart's method in diagnosis and management of acid-base disorders. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. Morgan TJ. The meaning of acid-base abnormalities in the intensive care unit: part III - effects of fluid administration.
Kaplan LJ, Frangos S. Clinical review: acid-base abnormalities in the intensive care unit - part II. Interpreting arterial blood gas results. Serum bicarbonate may replace the arterial base deficit in the trauma intensive care unit.
Am J Surg. Metabolic acidosis in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: a longitudinal quantitative study. Crit Care Med. Boyle M, Baldwin I. Aust Crit Care. Discordance between lactate and base deficit in the surgical intensive care unit: which one do you trust?
Measurement of acid-base resuscitation endpoints: lactate, base deficit, bicarbonate or what? Curr Opin Crit Care. Utility of Stewart's strong ion difference as a predictor of major injury after trauma in the ED. Am J Emerg Med.
Invited commentary: putting standard base excess to the test. Conventional or physicochemical approach in intensive care unit patients with metabolic acidosis.
Defining metabolic acidosis in patients with septic shock using Stewart approach. A new predictive formula for calculation of equilibrium pH: a step back in time. Assessing acid-base disorders. Berend K. Acid-base pathophysiology after years: confusing, irrational and controversial. J Nephrol. Initial pH, base deficit, lactate, anion gap, strong ion difference, and strong ion gap predict outcome from major vascular injury.
Lactate and base deficit in trauma: prognostic value. Rev Colomb Anestesiol. Science review: extracellular acidosis and the immune response: clinical and physiologic implications.
Arnett TR. Extracellular pH regulates bone cell function. J Nutr. Wiener SW. Toxicologic acid-base disorders. Emerg Med Clin NAm. Day J, Pandit JJ. Analysis of blood gases and acid-base balance.
Surgery Oxford. Dzierba AL, Abraham P. A practical approach to understanding acid-base abnormalities in critical illness. J Pharm Pract. Palmer BF. Approach to fluid and electrolyte disorders and acid-base problems. Prim Care.
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Acid-base balance disorders can be found in a primary or secondary form in patients with a disease process such as Diabetes Mellitus or acute renal failure, among others. The objective of this article is to explain and guide the correlationship between the clinical findings in the patient and the parameters of arterial blood gases in a simple and precise manner, in order to make the correct acid-base balance diagnosis and adequate therapeutic interventions. The conclusion was that base excess or deficit in arterial blood gases is a useful tool which along with the clinical history, pH, and partial pressure of CO2, provides an accurate estimate of the metabolic component of the acid-base balance. Derksen et al.