BRONKITIS KRONIS PDF

NCBI Bookshelf. Allen Widysanto ; George Mathew. Authors Allen Widysanto 1 ; George Mathew 2. Chronic bronchitis can be defined as a chronic productive cough lasting more than 3 months occurring within a span of 2 years. There are many known causes of chronic bronchitis, but the most important causative factor is exposure to cigarette smoke either due to active smoking or passive inhalation.

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Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi large and medium-sized airways in the lungs that causes coughing. Acute bronchitis usually has a cough that lasts around three weeks, [4] and is also known as a chest cold. Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough — one that produces sputum — that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years. Acute bronchitis is one of the most common diseases. Acute bronchitis, also known as a chest cold, is short term inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs.

Diagnosis is typically based on a person's signs and symptoms. Another common sign of bronchitis is a cough which lasts ten days to three weeks. If the cough lasts for longer than a month, it may become chronic bronchitis.

In addition, a fever may be present. Acute bronchitis is normally caused by a viral infection. Typically, these infections are rhinovirus , parainfluenza , or influenza. No specific testing is normally needed in order to diagnose acute bronchitis. One form of prevention is to avoid smoking and other lung irritants. Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years.

The term "chronic bronchitis" was used in previous definitions of COPD but is no longer included in the definition. Chronic bronchitis is a respiratory disease marked by overproduction of mucus and mucins.

The increased secretions are initially cleared by coughing. However, with continued excessive secretion, mucus clearance is impaired and when the airways become obstructed a cough becomes ineffective. Each of these factors is impaired in chronic bronchitis. Most cases of chronic bronchitis are caused by tobacco smoking. Air quality can also affect the respiratory system with higher levels of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide contributing to bronchial symptoms. Sulfur dioxide can cause inflammation which can aggravate chronic bronchitis and make infections more likely.

Air pollution in the workplace is the cause of several non-communicable diseases NCDs including chronic bronchitis. Decline in lung function in chronic bronchitis may be slowed by stopping smoking. A distinction has been made between exacerbations sudden worsenings of chronic bronchitis, and otherwise stable chronic bronchitis. Stable chronic bronchitis can be defined as the normal definition of chronic bronchitis, plus the absence of an acute exacerbation in the previous four weeks.

This has an advantage in that it is available as an extended use tablet which lasts for twelve hours. Chronic bronchitis affects about 3. Chronic bronchitis tends to affect men more often than women.

This might suggest other risk factors such as the inhalation of fuels, dusts, fumes and genetic factor. Per , of population the death rate of chronic bronchitis was 0. The condition of bronchitis has been recognised for many centuries, in several different cultures including the Ancient Greek, Chinese, and Indian, with the presence of excess phlegm and cough noted in recognition of the same condition.

In Britain in , a physician Charles Badham was the first person to describe the condition and name the acute form as acute bronchitis.

This was written of in a book entitled Inflammatory conditions of the bronchia. In this book Badham distinguished three forms of bronchitis including acute and chronic. A second edition of this book was renamed An Essay on Bronchitis and published in In an article was published on the treatment of chronic bronchitis in the elderly. The symptoms described have remained unchanged. The cause was thought to be brought on by dampness, cold weather, and foggy conditions, and treatments were aimed towards various cough mixtures, respiratory stimulants, and tonics.

It was noted that something other than the weather was thought to be at play. Another physician Harry Campbell was referred to who had written in the British Medical Journal a week before. Campbell had suggested that the cause of chronic bronchitis was due to toxic substances, and recommended pure air, simple food, and exercise to remove them from the body.

A joint research programme was undertaken in Chicago and London from to in which the clinical features of one thousand cases of chronic bronchitis were detailed. The findings were published in the Lancet in The study had looked at various associations such as the weather, conditions at home, and at work, age of onset, childhood illnesses, smoking habits, and breathlessness. It was concluded that chronic bronchitis invariably led to emphysema, particularly when the bronchitis had persisted for a long time.

In it was noted that at the time there were many investigations being carried out into chronic bronchitis and emphysema in general, and among industrial workers exposed to dust. This was seen to be not always applicable. His findings were in association with his studies on chronic bronchitis among pottery workers. Eosinophilic bronchitis is a chronic dry cough, defined by the presence of an increased number of a type of white blood cell known as eosinophils.

It has a normal finding on X-ray and has no airflow limitation. Protracted bacterial bronchitis in children, is defined as a chronic productive cough with a positive bronchoalveolar lavage that resolves with antibiotics.

Plastic bronchitis is a rarely found condition in which thickened secretions plug the bronchi. The light-colored plugs take the branching shape of the bronchi that they fill, and are known as bronchial casts. These differ from the casts seen in people whose plastic bronchitis is associated with congenital heart disease or lymphatic vessel abnormalities mainly because eosinophils and Charcot—Leyden crystals are present in the asthma-associated casts but not in the others.

Casts obstruct the airflow, and can result in the overinflation of the opposite lung. Plastic bronchitis usually occurs in children. Some cases may result from abnormalities in the lymphatic vessels. Advanced cases may show imaging similarities to bronchiectasis. Aspergillus bronchitis is one of the Aspergillosis spectrum of diseases, in which the bronchi are specifically subject to a fungal infection.

This differs from the other pulmonary aspergillosis conditions, in that it need not affect just the immunocompromised. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Inflammation of the large airways in the lungs. Not to be confused with bronchiolitis.

Main article: Acute bronchitis. See also: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Main article: Eosinophilic bronchitis. Retrieved 9 June Acute bronchitis". The New England Journal of Medicine. December American Family Physician.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. August 4, Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 1 April Journal of Pharmacy Practice. Retrieved 29 May Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 18th ed. McGraw Hill. Care Med. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. Retrieved 30 May The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved Retrieved 3 June Chronic bronchitis becomes chronic obstructive bronchitis if spirometric evidence of airflow obstruction develops.

Merck Manuals Consumer Version. When chronic bronchitis occurs together with a decrease in the rate of airflow from the lungs when the person breathes out expiratory airflow , it is considered a defining characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD.

Chronic bronchitis Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases. Retrieved 15 July The more familiar terms 'chronic bronchitis' and 'emphysema' are no longer used, but are now included within the COPD diagnosis.

Ferri's Clinical Advisor. Principles of Pulmonary Medicine. September Retrieved 3 August Infectious Diseases, 2nd ed.

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Bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is a disease of the lung. The lungs consist of a series of folded membranes the alveoli which are located at the ends of very fine branching air passages bronchioles. Chronic bronchitis is a persisting infection and inflammation of the larger airways of the lungs — the bronchi. Chronic bronchitis occurs as part of the disease complex known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD which also includes emphysema and small airways disease. Chronic bronchitis specifically refers to chronic cough and daily mucus production for at least three months of two or more consecutive years. Other causes of chronic cough must be excluded before making the diagnosis.

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Chronic bronchitis

Back to Health A to Z. If you have a high temperature, a new, continuous cough or a loss or change to your sense of smell or taste, it could be coronavirus. Stay at home and get advice from the coronavirus service. Bronchitis is an infection of the main airways of the lungs bronchi , causing them to become irritated and inflamed.

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