Towards synergy between tourism and nature conservation. The challenge for the rural regions: the case of Drawskie lake district, Poland. Joanna Adamowicz. Wyzwania i. Uwarunkowania przyrodnicze w planowaniu przestrzennym.
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Back in the s, American scientists calculated that the total worth of goods and services created by humans over the course of a year measured as gross national product constitutes just over a quarter of the value of services provide by the natural environment. Experts tallied up a bill of 33 mln USD that society as a whole would need to pay for using different elements of the natural environment, such as rivers, lakes, seas, meadows, woods, fields, coral reefs etc.
Without these resources, the tourism-driven economy would not be viable. Natural goods and services form the core of the tourist product, and are a critical component of the value and attractiveness of the vacation or travel package. At present, few representatives of the tourist trade are aware of and appreciate the direct correlation between dwindling natural resources and the drop in the value of tourist attractions of a given region.
A tourist industry which destroys elements of the environment for the sake of further development will inevitably bring about its own demise. Fewer and fewer people are inclined to spend their dream vacation in a place with a polluted seaside environment, blocks upon blocks of hotels, mountains littered with trash and covered with highways, cable cars and ski-lifts.
The issue of negative impact of tourism on the natural and sociocultural environment was addressed for the first time in the s, when mass tourism was just becoming a mass industry. The first symptoms of the detrimental effects of mass tourism in Europe were observed in the Alps and on the coastlines of the Mediterranean Sea.
It turned out that the unbalanced, uncontrolled growth of tourist amenities leads to significant air and water pollution, soil contamination, destruction of plant cover, eradication of fauna, degradation of the natural landscape, disappearance or neglect of cultural heritage in local communities etc.
Because of a poorly planned out development trajectory, mismanagement of tourist assets, overinvestment, many valuable recreational areas ended up forever losing their appeal as tourist destinations. The s saw a rise in the international criticism of the harmful effects of tourism on the natural and sociocultural environment. The revolt of the younger generation against ill-advised economic policy which was inadvertently destroying natural, cultural and other values resulted in a new approach to the tourist experience.
Young people were looking for alternative reasons for travelling and new forms of exploring the world; they expected more meaningful experiences and the opportunity to get an honest and sincere look at various remote parts of the planet and the peoples who inhabited them. It was, however, not until the s that these concepts began to be put into practice along with an effort to design and implement environmental politics in the local, national as well as global tourism industry.
The end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st ushered in a host of international declarations, conventions and strategies concerning tourism and environment, which were designed to spearhead the development of tourism in the years ahead, amongst them the Quebec Declaration on Ecotourism in the framework of the UN International Year of Ecotourism. In view of the engagement of many international tourist organizations, public institutions and environmental NGOs, the tourism industry has followed suit, taking on environmental targets and adopting eco-policies, which itself is a reflection of the needs and expectations of tourists themselves.
The market is beginning to offer trips that match the demands of clients who are environmentally aware. New trends in tourism which are connected in part to the rise in environmental awareness by tourists from highly industrialized economies are becoming the foundation for shaping long term policy by the tourist industry.
Despite these trends, it is abundantly clear that the dynamic growth of the tourist industry will continue to place a burden on the natural environment due to the increase in the volume of e. This makes it all the more pressing to introduce preventive actions to minimize if not avoid entirely the negative side effects of the growth of the tourism industry.
The effectiveness of these measures in large degree will depend on a thorough appreciation by all stakeholders of the tourist trade of the extensive and multifaceted relation between tourism and the natural and socio-cultural environment. Timeline of sustainable tourism and ecotourism. For the first time the issue of negative impact of tourism on the natural and sociocultural environment especially in the Alps and on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea was raised.
The intensification of international criticism of the negative impact of tourism on the natural environment, revolt of the younger generation against irresponsible economic policies, the search for alternative tourist destinations.
Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro Brazil — first specific actions to further sustainable forms of tourism. The Third Ministerial Conference "Environment for Europe" held in Sofia Bulgaria — signing of the The Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy, in the 2nd priority level of actions were defined strategic goals in the area of pro-environmental tourism policy. International Conference on Biodiversity and Tourism in Berlin — signing of Berlin Declaration, which states that the priorities concerning sustainable tourism are to be implemented in the national economic policies of the signatory states.
Worldwide, sustainable tourism is included on a much greater level in strategies, declarations, action plans of different levels and scope. Naukowe PWN, Warszawa , 3rd edition. Skip to content Background of ecotourism.
Timeline of sustainable tourism and ecotourism s For the first time the issue of negative impact of tourism on the natural and sociocultural environment especially in the Alps and on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea was raised.
Background of ecotourism
Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment determined from tree increment dynamics , some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group.