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In the laboratory a source of UV light or sunlight is favoured. Mechanisms portray what chemists think is going on in the reaction, whereas an equation tells you the ratio of products and reactants.
The process is a chain reaction. In the propagation step, one radical is produced for each one used. There are three possible bonds in a mixture of alkanes and chlorine. Average bond enthalpy kJ mol-1 The Cl-Cl bond is broken in preference to the others as it is the weakest and requires requires less energy to separate the atoms.
Free radicals are very reactive because they want to pair up their single electron. They do this by abstracting a hydrogen atom from methane; a methyl radical is formed The methyl radical is also very reactive and attacks a chlorine molecule A chlorine radical is produced and the whole process can start over again.
This is not very likely at the start of the reaction because of their low concentration. Summary Due to lack of reactivity, alkanes need a very reactive species to persuade them to react Free radicals need to be formed by homolytic fission of covalent bonds This is done by shining UV light on the mixture heat could be used Chlorine radicals are produced because the Cl-Cl bond is the weakest You only need one chlorine radical to start things off With excess chlorine you get further substitution and a mixture of chlorinated products.
If excess chlorine is present, further substitution takes place The equations show the propagation steps for the formation of Because of the many possible reactions there will be a mixture of products. Individual haloalkanes can be separated by fractional distillation. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Much more than documents. Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.
Start Free Trial Cancel anytime. Uploaded by VllsS. Date uploaded Oct 11, Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Flag for Inappropriate Content. Download Now. Related titles. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Mechanism Mechanisms portray what chemists think is going on in the reaction, whereas an equation tells you the ratio of products and reactants.
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Halogenacion de Alcanos
Halogenacion de Alcanos