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Log in here for access. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Log in or Sign up. Think about when you were a baby: you crawled around, you goo-goo-ed and ga-ga-ed, and you cried whenever you wanted food. I'm betting that things are different now. You probably walk more than you crawl, and you communicate with words instead of 'goo-goo' and 'ga-ga,' and when you're hungry you probably go to the refrigerator and get food instead of sitting and crying until someone feeds you.
Development is the process of growth and change that people go through in life. Robert J. Havighurst was a psychologist in the 20th century who developed a theory on how people develop through life. Let's look closer at Havighurst's theory of development: the stages of life and the sources of developmental tasks. As we have already seen, people change a lot from when they are babies to when they are adults.
But even adults change from when they are 20 to when they are Havighurst identified six stages of life that people go through. They are:. Infancy and early childhood , which lasts from birth to age 5. These are babies who are just learning to walk and talk and figuring out the world around them. Middle childhood lasts from age 6 to age During this time, children become more self-sufficient as they go to school and make friends.
Adolescence , which lasts from age 13 to age 18, comes with hormonal changes and learning about who you are as an individual. Early adulthood lasts from age 19 to age 30 and involves finding an occupation and often finding a life partner as well. Middle Age lasts from age 30 to age 60 and is the time when most people start a family and settle into their adult lives.
Later Maturity is the time of life after age During this time, people adjust to life after work and begin to prepare themselves for death. As you can see, each life stage has specific developmental tasks that generally occur in that time period.
Someone in early childhood, for example, is likely not going to be starting a family of their own, unless it's a pretend one. In contrast, someone in middle age is probably not learning to walk and talk. That's already happened by then. So people go through six stages of life and each stage has developmental tasks that a person needs to master during that period.
But what dictates the developmental tasks? For example, why does a person in early adulthood find a mate instead of someone in early childhood? According to Havighurst, there are three sources of developmental tasks.
That is, there are three things that can cause a developmental task during a life stage. The three sources are:. Physical Development. In infancy, for example, a child is growing and learning to walk and control his or her bowels. In adolescence and early adulthood, hormonal changes lead to a person having sex and learning how to reproduce. In middle adulthood or later maturity, physical changes like menopause require a person to adjust again.
Personal Values. As a person grows, he or she will start to see the world around them in a unique way. These personal values shape certain developmental tasks as well, such as choosing a career or figuring out what political views a person has. These spring from a person's understanding of the world and his or her values. Societal Pressures. We don't live alone on an island. We live with other people in society. As such, there are certain tasks that spring from societal pressures, like learning to read because society values it or learning to be a responsible citizen.
To help remember the three sources of developmental tasks, think of a person's body, heart, and eyes. The body of the person represents physical development, the heart represents personal values, and the eyes represent their perception of society's pressures. Development is the way a person grows and changes throughout his or her life.
Havighurst's developmental task model includes six stages of life: infancy and early childhood from birth to age 5, middle childhood between ages 6 and 12, adolescence between ages 13 and 18, early adulthood between ages 19 and 30, middle adulthood from age 30 to age 60, and later maturity , which is after age Each stage of life has unique developmental tasks that people must master.
These tasks come from one of three areas: physical development , personal values , and societal pressures. To unlock this lesson you must be a Study. Create your account. Already a member? Log In. Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree.
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Life Situation Issues in Adolescence. Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development in Adolescence. Elkind's Theory of Adolescent Egocentrism.
Principles of Growth and Development. Physical Development in Middle Childhood. Physical Development in Early Childhood. Physical Development in Middle Adulthood. Natural Sciences for Teachers: Professional Development. Introduction to Psychology: Tutoring Solution. Microbiology: Tutoring Solution. Abnormal Psychology: Tutoring Solution. Effective Communication in the Workplace: Help and Review. Lesson Transcript.
What is Havighurst’s Developmental Tasks Theory?
A developmental task is a task that arises at or about a certain period in life, unsuccessful achievement of which leads to inability to perform tasks associated with the next period or stage in life. To learn to look upon girls as women and boys as men; to become an adult among adults; to learn to work with others for a common purpose, disregarding personal feelings; to lead without dominating. To accept one's body; to keep it healthy through good nutrition, exercise, disease prevention, and other health practices. To develop affection for parents without dependence upon them; to develop respect for older adults without dependence upon them. To explore attitudes toward family life and having children; to acquire the knowledge necessary for home management and, if desired, child rearing. To participate as a responsible person with friends at home, and in the community; to develop personal moral values to guide behavior.
Havighurst's Developmental Task Model
Robert Havighurst emphasized that learning is basic and that it continues throughout life span. Growth and Development occurs in six stages. Developmental Tasks of Infancy and Early Childhood: 1. Learning to walk. Learning to take solid foods 3.
Robert J. Havighurst
Although many theorists are responsible for contributing to the Developmental Tasks Theory, it was Robert Havighurst who elaborated on this development theory in the most systematic and extensive manner. A person moves from one stage to the next by means of successful resolution of problems or performance of certain developmental tasks. These tasks are typically encountered by most people in the culture where that person belongs. They also earn the approval of their community or society. This success provides a sound foundation that allows these people to accomplish the developmental tasks that they will encounter at later Havighurst developmental stages. This results in the subsequent experience of difficulty when faced with succeeding developmental tasks at later Havighurst developmental stages.