Have you been skipping over references to time in the Bible because they seem too confusing? Professor Jack Finegan's Handbook of Biblical Chronology clarifies those ancient systems of time reckoning and the biblical passages that use them. Part 1, Principles of Chronology in the Ancient World, describes the origins of basic units of time and surveys the calendars used in the Ancient Near East through the Roman era. His long list of publications includes Light from the Ancient Past and a number of volumes on biblical archaeology. What would you like to know about this product?
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Box Peabody, Massachusetts All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1. Bible—Chronology—Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Title BS F5 Books and Periodicals xxv 2. Biblical Books and Related Literature xxxi 3. Eras xxxiii 4. Days xxxiii 5. Months xxxiii 6. Miscellaneous xxxiv Chronological Tables 1. Archaeological and Cultural Periods in the Holy Land xxxv 2. Egyptian Dynasties xxxvi. Hebrew Numerals 4 2. Greek Numerals 4 3. Roman Numerals 5 II. The Day 6 2.
The Week 12 3. The Month 14 4. The Babylonian Calendar 25 3. The Israelite Calendar 29 4. The Babylonian Calendar in Palestine 33 5. The Calendar at Qumran 39 6. The Calendar of Jubilees 43 7. The Greek Calendar 50 8. The Roman Calendar In Egypt 68 2.
In Mesopotamia 72 3. Among the Jews 76 4. In Greece 80 5. ERAS 92 1. The Era of the Olympiads 92 2. The Era of the City of Rome 98 3.
The Seleucid Era ' 4. The Era of Diocletian 6. The Christian Era Sabbatical Years 2. Jubilees 3. Priestly Courses 4. Qumran and Jerusalem The Chronoaraphies ot Africanus 3. The Kings of Judah and Israel 5. The Closing Period of the Kingdom of Judah 6. The Dates in Ezekiel 8. Post-Exilic Dates The Birth of John and the Course of Abijah Peter in Rome Gallic 2. The Annales Veteris et Novi Testament!
The Biblical Chronology of E. I am appreciative of the reception and wide usage of this book in its original edition , and of the many comments and inquiries about it which came to me, to many of which, under the pressure of other necessary concerns, I was unable to make proper acknowledgment or answer.
Also, I am appreciative of the many notices and reviews of this book, including those in. Book Review Digest 60 : Christian Century 81 June 11, : America Dec 5, : Christianity Today May 21, : 34, by J.
Scientific American July : Bibliotheca orientalis 22 May-July : , by E. Journal of Bible and Religion 33 Oct : , by H. Neil Richardson. Virginia Quarterly Review 71 Winter : Interpretation 20 Jan , by R.
Revue biblique 73 Jan : , by R. Journal of Theological Studies 17 Apr : , by G. Likewise, I express appreciation of attention to my work in other articles and books, and among many I may mention especially the Auseinandersetzung with my book in the notes to chapter 11, pp. Among many I will mention especially Ernest L.
Martin and Paul Keresztes. I also try to give fair recognition to a number of opinions different from my own. Finally, I thank Hendrickson Publishers for the invitation in August to prepare this "revised and expanded" edition, and for their patience with the time it took me to accomplish the task.
John P. Meier, "Why Search for the Historical Jesus? In view of this meaning of kairos, one might have expected that Paul would use it in speaking of what was assuredly the particular and proper time when God sent forth his Son. But instead, in Gal , he chooses to use for "time" the Greek word Xpovog, chronos. Over against kairos, which is a particular and appropriate time, chronos is time which is seen in its extent or duration. As chronos, time flows ceaselessly past us, a stream which cannot be stopped but which can be measured.
It was in the fulness of this stream of chronos that the event of Jesus Christ took place. The chronological references in the biblical records are numerous but not always easy to understand correctly. Bible time extends through thou- sands of years and Bible history touches many different lands of the Near Eastern and Mediterranean world.
In the periods and places involved, many different systems of time reckoning were employed, at least some of which may be presupposed in the biblical references. The work of early chronographers and commentators who occupied themselves with the biblical data is also important, and this extends the range of necessary inquiry even further.
In this extremely complex and almost esoteric field much is, of course, not yet even known; what is known to the specialists in the areas involved is often quite inaccessible to the ordinary student and, if accessible, incomprehensible. Then, on the basis of the best understanding we can obtain of the ancient methods of time reckoning—many of which, it may be added, are of a surprising degree of accuracy and sophistication—a further large part of the task is to try to work out against that background the correct significance of the biblical data themselves.
Here it is not the attempt of the present handbook to deal with all the data or solve all the problems, but rather to indicate ways of taking up the problems in selected and representative areas. It may be hoped that some of the problems have been solved correctly. It may also be hoped that with the background materials of the first part of this handbook, and the sample engagements with particular problems in the second part, others may go on with those unfinished tasks in these areas, which will doubtless long continue to challenge students of ancient history and biblical record.
My own involvement with such matters has come about in connection with the endeavor to write in the area of an archaeological approach to biblical history. In revising my Light Jrom the Ancient Past, there has been a tendency to introduce, particularly in footnotes and appendix, an increasing amount of chronological material. Since the archaeological materials increase steadily too, limits are reached.
Also notes and appendix may be obscure places in which to have to search. Therefore, with the permission of Princeton University Press, some of the chronological sections have been taken out of that book and incorporated in the present handbook, where they are set in a wider context of specifically chronological considerations and made more readily available for those interested.
Here, then, is a handbook prepared with the hope that it will be useful to those who concern themselves with that framework in time in which the events of Bible history are set. In his famous Chronicle Eusebius, who occupied himself with many of the same problems as we, quoted the saying that "it is not for you to know times or seasons xpovov; TI Kaipoxi; " Acts as applying not only to the determination of the time of the end of the world but also to the attempted solution of other chronological problems.
By the quotation he incul- cates a proper humility in the approach to chronological questions; at the same time, by his own example in the vast labor of writing the Chronicle, he encourages us to believe that concern with the chronological data is one of the indispensable and unavoidable tasks in the study of the Bible.
The materials in the present handbook are intended to assist such study. Greek Numerals 5 3. Roman Numerals 5 4. The Planetary Names of the Days of the Week 13 5.
The Handbook of Biblical Chronology, Revised Edition
Jack Finegan - Handbook of Biblical Chronology