KOMPJUTERSKI VIRUSI PDF

A computer virus is a type of computer program that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code. Virus writers use social engineering deceptions and exploit detailed knowledge of security vulnerabilities to initially infect systems and to spread the virus. Computer viruses currently cause billions of dollars' worth of economic damage each year, [13] due to causing system failure, wasting computer resources, corrupting data, increasing maintenance costs or stealing personal information. In response, free, open-source antivirus tools have been developed, and an industry of antivirus software has cropped up, selling or freely distributing virus protection to users of various operating systems. The term "virus" is also misused by extension to refer to other types of malware. The majority of active malware threats are actually trojan horse programs or computer worms rather than computer viruses.

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Zasega nepoznati grupa na luge ja napadnale nuklearnata postrojka vo Busher,Iran i drugite instalacii,koristejki kompjuteri i im vmetnale virusi so sto gi razbolele centrifugite na nuklearnite postrojki.

Imeno spored nekoi strucnjaci kodot na virusot "Ester" upatuva deka virusot e od Izraelsko proizvodstvo,no zasega ova se spekulacii. Stuxnet's complexity suggests it could only have been written by a "nation state", some researchers have claimed. It is believed to be the first-known worm designed to target real-world infrastructure such as power stations, water plants and industrial units.

It was first detected in June and has been intensely studied ever since. Some have speculated that it could have been aimed at disrupting Iran's delayed Bushehr nuclear power plant or the uranium enrichment plant at Natanz. However, Mr O'Murchu and others, such as security expert Bruce Schneier, have said that there was currently not enough evidence to draw conclusions about what its intended target was or who had written it. That figure still stands, said Mr O'Murchu, although India and Indonesia have also seen relatively high infection rates.

Unlike most viruses, the worm targets systems that are traditionally not connected to the internet for security reasons.

Instead it infects Windows machines via USB keys - commonly used to move files around - infected with malware. Once it has infected a machine on a firm's internal network, it seeks out a specific configuration of industrial control software made by Siemens. Siemens factory The worm searches out industrial systems made by Siemens Once hijacked, the code can reprogram so-called PLC programmable logic control software to give attached industrial machinery new instructions.

However, the worm has also raised eyebrows because of the complexity of the code used and the fact that it bundled so many different techniques into one payload. In addition, it exploited several previously unknown and unpatched vulnerabilities in Windows, known as zero-day exploits. Microsoft has so far patched two of the flaws. To me, it seems that the resources needed to stage this attack point to a nation state," he wrote. Mr Langner, who declined to be interviewed by the BBC, has drawn a lot of attention for suggesting that Stuxnet could have been targeting the Bushehr nuclear plant.

In particular, he has highlighted a photograph reportedly taken inside the plant that suggests it used the targeted control systems, although they were "not properly licensed and configured". Mr O'Murchu said no firm conclusions could be drawn.

However, he hopes that will change when he releases his analysis at a conference in Vancouver next week. Instead, he hopes that other experts will be able to pore over their research and pinpoint the exact configuration needed and where that is used. He said that Iran's nuclear power plant had been built with help from a Russian contractor and that Siemens was not involved.

Symantec's geographical analysis of the worm's spread also looked at infected PCs. It is not the first time that malware has been found that affects critical infrastructure, although most incidents occur accidentally, said Mr O'Murchu, when a virus intended to infect another system accidentally wreaked havoc with real-world systems. In the US government admitted that software had been found that could shut down the nation's power grid. And Mr Hypponen said that he was aware of an attack - launched by infected USB sticks - against the military systems of a Nato country.

Researchers from Kaspersky Labs will also unveil new findings at the same event. Interactive Anatomy of a cyber crime The next world war will likely happen in cyber space. And we all know that the best way to win a war, any war, is to avoid it in the first place.

Stuxnet was first detected in June and appeared to have infiltrated industrial systems in countries such as India, Indonesia and Iran. Strategically, such an attack could destroy centrifuge facilities that are unknown to international nuclear inspectors, he said. Part of that implies the development of techniques, such as these, that target advanced industrial control systems through computer worms. Deibert said, it remains an open question whether a government is behind this particular offensive.

A series of numbers found in the program is also feeding guesswork. The seemingly random sequence — — could be a reference to May 9, The United States has also been fingered as having the sophistication and capability to spring such a cyber-attack.

But experts caution about getting bogged down in Dan Brown-like conspiracies about hidden codes, and say the Myrtus and other references might be red herrings to throw off detection of the true authors. Rohozinski added. For its part, Iran has acknowledged that Stuxnet did infect computers in its nuclear program, including some used by workers at the Bushehr plant. Rohozinski said. In November, following a decree issed by president Dmitry Medvedev, Moscow announced the cancellation of its military cooperation agreement with Iran pertaining to the S air defense system.

Without Russian military aid, Iran is a "sitting duck". Its air defence system depends on continued Russian military cooperation. These developments strike at the very heart of the structure of military alliances.

They prevent Russia and China to sell both strategic and conventional weapons and military technology to their de facto ally: Iran. In fact, that was one of major objectives of Resolution , which Washington is intent upon enforcing.

It upholds the notion that Iran is an upcoming nuclear power and a threat to global security. The US stance in the UN Security Council, has in part based on alleged intelligence documents which provide "evidence" of Iran's nuclear weapons program. Broad and David E. Sanger entitled "Relying on Computer, U.

Seeks to Prove Iran's Nuclear Aims". Washington's allegations, reported in the NYT hinged upon documents "obtained from a stolen Iranian computer by an unknown source and given to US intelligence in ".

These documents included "a series of drawings of a missile re-entry vehicle" which allegedly could accommodate an Iranian produced nuclear weapon. The Americans flashed on a screen and spread over a conference table selections from more than a thousand pages of Iranian computer simulations and accounts of experiments, saying they showed a long effort to design a nuclear warhead, according to a half-dozen European and American participants in the meeting.

The documents, the Americans acknowledged from the start, do not prove that Iran has an atomic bomb. They presented them as the strongest evidence yet that, despite Iran's insistence that its nuclear program is peaceful, the country is trying to develop a compact warhead to fit atop its Shahab missile, which can reach Israel and other countries in the Middle East. Sanger Relying on Computer, U. While their authenticity has been questioned on several occasions, a recent article by investigative reporter Gareth Porter confirms unequivocally that the mysterious laptop documents are fake.

The drawings contained in the documents do not pertain to the Shahab missile but to an obsolete North Korean missile system which was decommissioned by Iran in the mids.

How stupid! Robert Joseph, US undersecretary of state for arms control and international security, made a formal presentation on the purported Iranian nuclear weapons program documents to the agency's leading officials in Vienna.

Joseph flashed excerpts from the documents on the screen, giving special attention to the series of technical drawings or "schematics" showing 18 different ways of fitting an unidentified payload into the re-entry vehicle or "warhead" of Iran's medium-range ballistic missile, the Shahab When IAEA analysts were allowed to study the documents, however, they discovered that those schematics were based on a re-entry vehicle that the analysts knew had already been abandoned by the Iranian military in favor of a new, improved design.

The warhead shown in the schematics had the familiar "dunce cap" shape of the original North Korean No Dong missile, which Iran had acquired in the mids. The laptop documents had depicted the wrong re-entry vehicle being redesigned. Gareth Porter, op cit Who was behind the production of fake intelligence? Gareth Porter's suggests that Israel's Mossad has been a source of fake intelligence regarding Iran's alleged nuclear weapons program: The origin of the laptop documents may never be proven conclusively, but the accumulated evidence points to Israel as the source.

As early as , the head of the Israel Defense Forces' military intelligence research and assessment division, Yaakov Amidror, tried unsuccessfully to persuade his American counterparts that Iran was planning to "go nuclear.

We are dealing with a clear case of fake intelligence comparable to that presented by Colin Powell in February on Iraq's alleged weapons of mass destruction. The fake intelligence presented to the UN Security Council was used as a justification for the March invasion of Iraq. The intelligence information, gathered by the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency, a Department of Defense agency that gathers foreign military intelligence for the Pentagon, was used by the Bush administration to convince the public that Iraq posed a threat to the world.

The important question is whether Russia and China will revise their stance in the United Nations Security Council pertaining to the Iran's sanctions regime? Will the US antiwar movement confront Washington's plans to wage a pre-emptive nuclear war against Iran based on fake intelligence?

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