Metrics details. Stunting among toddlers is highly prevalent in Indonesia. As a chronic malnutrition problem, stunting is closely related to internal maternal health and external factors such as feeding practices, illness and socio-economics of the community. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between low birth weight LBW , child feeding practices and neonatal illness with stunting among Indonesian toddlers. Totally children aged of 12—23 months included in this analysis. Data analysis was done through bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions.
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Proposed conventional criteria include estimated fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age. Elevated ratio of femur length to abdominal circumference Elevated ratio of head circumference to abdominal circumference. Doppler criteria include elevated ratio of systolic: diastolic blood flow velocity in the umbilical artery or in the uterine artery.
No single criterion however, has a sufficiently high positive predictive value for IUGR to permit a confident exclusion of IUGR Diagnosis or exclusion of IUGR can best be achieved by the combined use of three parameters: estimated fetal weight, amniotic fluid volume and maternal B. P are pointers towards IUGR. Intrinsic causes includes aneuploidy Particular attention should be paid to the fetal hands and tone. Anything that disrupts the fetal abdomen leads to apparent IUGR because the abdominal circumference is altered Examples are gastrochisis and omphalocele.
Fetal macrosomia. Defined as estimated fetal birth weight greater than gm. Various methods have been developed to achieve accurate weight estimates of the average-sized fetus. Unfortunately, there is no one excellent way of precisely predicting macrosomia.
Some genetic causes includes Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome usually is a sporadic abnormality. It is seen with macroglossia and occasionally umbilical hernia, which may appear on ultrasound as a small omphalocele. Marshall-Smith syndrome is a sporadic disease in which markedly accelerated skeletal maturation results in a long, relatively thin newborn.
An overestimation of weight is made because the head and femur are so much larger than anticipated. Sotos' syndrome is associated with profound macrocephaly and mild dilation of the cerebral ventricles, but there is no consistent pattern of brain malformation.
The hands and feet are also very large for gestational age. Above all, the physician should always look at the parents when assessing a fetus with macrocephaly or isolated large hands or feet. Often, large size is simply an expression of familial propensity. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home.
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Extrinsic causes like diabetes in the mother,and familial tendencies must be bore in mind. The physician should be aware of these syndromes and search for the associated anomalies. Steven Jones. Thu Y Caroline Rodgers. Agus Darwiyanto. Kat Valdez. Egha Ratu Edo. Sabiha Sadat. Krishna N. Anwar Khan. Rupam Das. Ruben Dario Choque Cutipa. Raymundo III Doce.
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Uss Features of Iugr and Macrosomia.
Proposed conventional criteria include estimated fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age. Elevated ratio of femur length to abdominal circumference Elevated ratio of head circumference to abdominal circumference. Doppler criteria include elevated ratio of systolic: diastolic blood flow velocity in the umbilical artery or in the uterine artery. No single criterion however, has a sufficiently high positive predictive value for IUGR to permit a confident exclusion of IUGR Diagnosis or exclusion of IUGR can best be achieved by the combined use of three parameters: estimated fetal weight, amniotic fluid volume and maternal B.