In the attempts to understand the ideology underpinning the terror attack in Norway 22nd July , and the growth of far-right extremism in Europe more generally, Christianity and the uses of the Bible are a largely neglected feature. I show that the Bible functions as a legitimating device, glossing violence as defense of a Christian Europe; as a motivational instrument, positing God as a fellow fighter; and, as an origin for Europe. The Bible is situated in a pre-modern state where its signifying powers are policed. At the same time, it is wrenched out of this solidified framework, cut up and pasted into the manifesto hypertext in order to serve as a contemporary ally to an anti-Muslim and anti-multicultural cause. On 22nd July , Anders Behring Breivik dressed in a fake police uniform, drove to the Government Headquarters the government office buildings , in Oslo Regjeringskvartalet and planted a bomb, which detonated shortly thereafter.
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The parties have quickly responded by condemning the attacks. Just hours before carrying out the brutal twin-attacks in Norway on Friday, Anders Breivik sent friends a 1, page manifesto detailing his extreme right-wing ideology. The document, called " A European Declaration of Independence," strongly condemns Norway's liberal policies and the spread of multiculturalism, saying it is leading to the "Islamization of Europe.
He claimed to have links with the English anti-Muslim party, the English Defense League, and referred directly to Geert Wilders Dutch Freedom Party, which props up the country's center-right coalition. Both parties were quick to distance themselves from Breivik's manifesto, however, and condemn the attacks.
Manfred Rouhs, chairman of the German far-right party, the Pro Germany Citizens Movement, also refuted the notion that there were similarities between European right-wing parties and Breivik's ideology. Nevertheless, commentators have questioned whether the attack is a sign that extreme-right wing ideology is taking hold in Europe.
In , the anti-immigration Sweden Democrats party won its first seats in parliament, and the Freedom Party in the Netherlands became the third-largest party in the country. Matthew Goodwin warned that among the growing support network for far-right parties is a minority of extremists who are likely to share Breivik's ideology. In spite of this, Goodwin asserted that no direct associations should be made between extreme right-wing groups and acts of violence in the wake of the attacks in Norway.
But as far-right parties increasingly enter mainstream politics, Goodwin is among a series of experts who have called for a frank debate about immigration policy to address the concerns of far-right voters and prevent acts of violence in the future. The protection of young people is a top priority in Germany. But as neo-Nazis increasingly use the Internet to appeal to young people, youth protection agencies are demanding action. Norwegians observed a minute's silence Monday to mark the mass murder that struck the country on Friday.
Police have revised the total number of dead to 76, down from 93 as initially reported. In the wake of the Norway terror attacks, authorities are looking at possible German targets highlighted in the suspect's so-called 'manifesto. Norwegians are determined not to buckle under the terror of Friday's attacks, says Norwegian journalist and DW correspondent Lars Bevanger.
The country hopes it can respond to the terror with more democracy and openness. Militant right-wing extremists in Germany are receiving combat training in Russia, a German news magazine has reported. Officials say they cannot prevent them from going. But with infections down, the economy reopening, and China under fire over its clampdown on Hong Kong — is the pandemic the real reason?
The figure exceeds the original target sought by the GAVI vaccine alliance. The world's current focus may by on coronavirus, but other diseases such as measles, polio and typhoid are also being targeted. More info OK. Wrong language? Change it here DW. COM has chosen English as your language setting. COM in 30 languages.
Deutsche Welle. Audiotrainer Deutschtrainer Die Bienenretter. Europe Extreme far-right on the defensive after Norway massacre Friday's massacre in Norway has placed a renewed focus on the far-right after the killer claimed to have links with extreme right-wing parties in Europe. Far-right parties have made gains across Europe. The EDL said there was no evidence Breivik was one of their supporters.
German neo-Nazis increasingly target young people online The protection of young people is a top priority in Germany. Norway shooting suspect to be in isolation for four weeks Norwegians observed a minute's silence Monday to mark the mass murder that struck the country on Friday. European politicians listed as possible targets by Norwegian gunman In the wake of the Norway terror attacks, authorities are looking at possible German targets highlighted in the suspect's so-called 'manifesto.
Norway vows not to buckle under terror Norwegians are determined not to buckle under the terror of Friday's attacks, says Norwegian journalist and DW correspondent Lars Bevanger.
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Extreme far-right on the defensive after Norway massacre
Norwegian extremist arrest recalls Breivik case
While still a juvenile, he was arrested, and was consequently rejected from the Norwegian Armed Forces. He left the Progress Party in and went on to join a gun club while also founding a company which he used to finance his planned terrorist attacks. On the day of the attacks, Breivik electronically distributed a compendium of texts entitled A European Declaration of Independence , describing his militant ideology. Two teams of court-appointed forensic psychiatrists examined Breivik before his trial. The first team diagnosed Breivik with paranoid schizophrenia  but after this initial finding was criticized,  a second evaluation concluded that he was not psychotic during the attacks but did have narcissistic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder. His trial began on 16 April , with closing arguments made on 22 June He was sentenced to 21 years in prison, in a form of preventive detention that required a minimum of 10 years incarceration and the possibility of one or more extensions for as long as he is deemed a danger to society.